Wednesday, January 31, 2018



        ( Photo Pushkar Bhan with Raj Kapoor )

After actor-playwright Padamshri Pushkar Bhan ( 1926 - 2008) popularized word Machaama through his radio plays ( comedy), it has come to be a part of Kashmiri psyche. And here is a single word that brings a nostalgic smile on every Kashmiri's face. Most of us are familiar with characters of these Machama series radio plays; I mean Machaama, Kaak, Kaaken, Khadiji ( wife of Machama ), Sula Gotta, Rehman Dadda and many more. Most of us also remember Tuvaan Bacha, Zingari, Singari, Djinn, Rakh ( huge bird ) and some more characters from Pushker Bhan’s radio play ‘Sindbaad Machaama ’.

I vividly remember how the food was served to us at 8.30 PM and my mother would finish everything by 9.15 PM. Thereafter every one in our family kept glued to the radio in hush silence waiting till 9.30 PM when we would hear something like this :

“ Ye chhu Radio Kashmir Srinagar . Raetch haenz Saada Nuv Baajeiye . Booziv Drama ‘Sindbaad Machaama ’ Tehreer Pusker Bhan Peishkush Pran kishore ’
"This is radio Kashmir Srinagar. It is 9.30 PM now. Tune in to our drama ‘Sindbaad Machaama’ scripted by Puhker Bhan and produced by Pran Kishore.’

To be at home at dot drama time, many shopkeepers would close their shops early. children, elders, ladies and middle-aged persons would wait eagerly for the Machaama radio drama.

Machaama had touched the soul of every Kashmiri who somehow wanted a break from the monotony of gossip, scheming and ignorance. Those days, every young boy would be nicknamed as ‘ Tuvaan Bacha’. Girls would be nicknamed Zingaari and Singaari and many times police had to be called near women's college Maulana Azad road as boys from S P College would come to the gate at closing hours and cry;

‘ Hataai  Zingaari ! Hataai Singaari !’

In Kashmir, idlers and gossip mongers sitting on shops during those days were nicknamed ‘Sulla Gotta’ and ‘Rehman Dadda’ and idle daydreamers were satirically called as ‘Machaama Sahib’.
Machaama’s character has a tragic glimpse of unemployment and ignorance that prevailed in Kashmiri society. Machaama always dreams to be adventurous and rich. Machaama, a dreamy entrepreneur who desires to fly air-crafts, travel to distant lands, meet different people and try his luck to become rich and well known. And this poor Machaama is equally burdened with social / family responsibilities. These responsibilities always trigger negative momentum in his journey towards the realization of his dreams.

Fed up with the consumption of cheap green leafy Haak ( Collard greens ) in his native land, Machaama wants to relish chicken, mutton Wazwaan, Seeka Tujji ( fire-roasted mutton pieces ), Kebabs and Pilaf in his dreamy sojourns. And a cigarette is the first thing that he demands during this dream journey.

And then Machaama wants to do something so that his name is written in golden pages of history. In his dreams, Machaama becomes a pilot, a hero, a leader, a colonizer ( colony for Djinns ), a trader, a mechanic, a traveller, a sailor, a singer, an orator and a kingmaker. He desires to unfold the secrets of treasures hidden at untraveled places. After assuming power in dreams, he orders his wife Khadiji to be made a minister of social welfare. I tend to believe that a Machaama lies hidden in all of us.

Machaama is a surname of Kashmiris. Many Machaama families lived at Karapora Khushki,  Rainawari in Srinagar city. Kuldeep Machaama is my close friend from Machaama family of Rainawari and one day his father informed me as under :

‘ Machaama is a Kashmiri surname. You can see Pandit and Muslim Machamas. It means sweetened rice. Pushker Bhan made us popular though many persons started making fun of our surname. Bhan sahib later spoke in an interview that Machaama came to his mind just for the fun of the word. He never knew that it was a surname with some Kashmiri families. ’

                                                  ( Pushkar Bhan in a Kashmiri film )

 Farooq Nazki ,Noted  Kashmiri poet and broadcaster  says this about Pushkar Bhan and Machaama series:-

"I remember when Neil Armstrong landed on the moon Pushkar Bhan created Machama in one night as a parody in which Rehman Gota, Sula Dada and Machaama went to the moon. He was able to create such a sound aura that one would feel transported to the moon literally. It is he who has elevated Kashmiri drama to the extreme horizons of perfection."

In Kashmir, we had a renowned saint Ahmed Sahib Machaama who’s Ziyarat is located at Hawal near Firdaus cinema or Shribhat Kocha. He was a Sufi poet and a great believer of peaceful coexistence. He was murshid to many Sufi poets of his time including Wahaab Khaar and Prakash Ram.

Ahmed Sahib Machaama is credited with bringing the Sirhindi Silsila of Sufism to the  Kashmir valley once he returned from Punjab.
In Hebrew lexicon, Machama’ah means something that is ‘curd-like ’. It also means words of flattery.

Pushkar Bhan was born at Habba Kadal in Srinagar city in 1926. He joined Radio Kashmir , Srinagar in 1952 and retired in 1985 as  producer . His radio serial ',Zoona Dubb ' became most popular programme that was aired without break for 19 years. His radio dramas under "Machaama" series touched heights of popularity in the Kashmir valley.He also played major roles in  Maenz-Raat and Mehjoor , two Kashmiri films . Pushkar Bhan was awarded Padamshri in 1974 .For writing "Machaama" plays , He was awarded Sahitya Akademi award in 1976. He died in 2008.

( Avtar Mota )

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Sunday, January 28, 2018


               ( Lata ji And Javed Akhtar )
 .            (Sahir reading a poem )

 (Actor Amitabh And Rekha in Silsilay)


 Javed Akhtar Informs  :

“  I knew Yash ji very well.  I was in his team as  script writer. I had already written DEEWAR , TRISHUL and KALA PATHAR  and sahir sahib had written some memorable songs for all the three films. When yash ji decided about SILSILA  Project , He went to Lata ji and sought her advice for some better lyricist as Sahir Sahib was no more around. Lata ji suggested my name . She had informed  Yash ji that her friend * *Padma,  who was a poet , had liked my poems and Gazals. I used to write poems and Gazals but nothing was published . Not many people knew about my poetry in the Industry.

 Yash ji knew Urdu . He had a deep understanding of poetic nuances . He  had heard some poems  that I had written  . He never asked me for a song  till Sahir sahib was alive. For  All of us also,  sahir sahib was the   tallest  name  and a very  successful  lyricist in Hindi Cinema.  He commanded respect and had a price. With Yash ji , I kept a low profile about my poetry and focused on Script writing.

And Finally one day ,  yash ji asked me to write songs for Silsila ., Surprised ,  I declined the offer at once . I tried to put one reason or the other and thought that he shall get annoyed and find out some other poet.  But all that made him   adamant . At that time I never knew that Lata ji was behind my name .I never knew that Lata Ji had told him that I could only  write what Yash ji had in mind. Driven to wall from all sides by yash ji’s adamancy  , I decided to write. That is how Javed Akhtar became a Lyricist and wrote his first Film song ……… “ DEKHA EK KHWAAB  TO YEH SILSILAY HUVAY ”



( Autar Mota )

* Padma is well known Dogri poet and Writer Padma Sachdev.

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Friday, January 26, 2018


                                  REPUBLIC DAY GREETINGS                                     

I wrote my prayer..

Teri Nadiyon se Amrit barastaa Rahe,
Teray kheton se miltaa Rahe Sab ko Ann
Tujh pe mushkil kabhi bhi na Aaye koyii
Teray baagon mein ho Rang o Boo ka chalan
...Zindabaad Aey wattan

Mausamon ki Mehar Har Gadi ho yahaan
Meharbaan ho Havaaon ka bhi Baankpan
Mast Lehron ka sangeet Bajtaa Rahe
Saahilon pe teray Chhan-Chhana-Chhan-Chhanan
.....................Zindabaad Aey Wattan.

Jhoomti Gaati khushiyaan Milein Har taraf
Teray Ghar hon ya Bazaar ya teray ban
Phool khiltay Rahein log miltay Rahein
Ho Mohabbat Murawat ka Har su chalan..
..........Zindabaad Aey Wattan

kaam Miltay Rahein Choolhe Jaltay Rahein
Har Taraf Noor hi Noor ilam aur Fun
khatam Nafrat adaavat ka ho silsila
Jo Sukhan ho to ho Pyaar ka hi Sukhan
.......Zindabaad Aey Wattan.

Aey Himaala Teri Sarparasti Rahay
Ta Abad Hon Suhaagan ye Gang o jaman
Sookhi Dharti ko Pyaason Ko Miltaa rahay
Teri Jheelon ka Aur Aabshaaron Ka Dhan
...............Zindabaad Aey Wattan

(Autar Mota)

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Thursday, January 25, 2018





Sometime back ,   Shri Surrinder Turki  informed me that  he  belonged to the family of Turkis living in Karan Nagar. He   sent a mail  to me   saying that he happens to be a direct descendant of Pandit Taba Ram Turki. He has also confirmed that his ancestors resided in Rainawari where from they moved out long back.

Coming to Pandit Taba Ram Turki , I need to add that this  learned Pandit was a Persian poet of exceptional quality . His poetry books can be seen in some Central Asian countries .    Nabi Hadi's book titled 'Dictionary of Indo-Persian literature'  Published in 1995 , specifically mentions   his  name   at page 134.  A galaxy of Persian scholars are included in this book .Another Book Published by Beta Script Publishing  Titled ' Pandit Taba Ram Turki  …ISBN 978-613-2-48456-7'  deals exclusively with Persian poetry of Taba Ram Turki.  

 Ronald Cohn and Jesse Russel  have jointly  edited  84 page  paperback book on   life and works Pandit Taba Ram Turki published in 2013. This book, Published in English  under ISBN - 10:5512054953 and ISBN - 13:9785512054956 is sold  for  US $27.95.

Pandit Taba Ram  Turki Wrote   under the pen name 'Betab '. It was a practice among Kashmiri Pandits to use Sun ( Aftab Ram  or Aftab joo ) , Moon ( Zoona Ded  or  Zoona Maal ) and  stars ( Tarakh Kak  or Tarakh Joo ) as names .Taba is a short cut for Aftab meaning the Sun , luminous and source of natural  light.

Just across Jogi lanker bridge in Rainawari ,there used to be a cluster of Turkis . They lived close to the old house of Pandit Sham Lal Saraf ( Minister in the first cabinet of Sheikh Mohammad Abdullah ) .  Many Turkis moved out to live in other areas of Srinagar city . A family moved to Punjab  much before 1947 in search of employment . Three or four  families of Turkis  continued to live in this area till  January 1990. I happened to know the families of Pandit Amar Nath Turki and  Shri Makhan  Lal Turki   .  Pandit Taba Ram belonged to this  Turki clan of Jogilanker , Rainawari  .    I also had a friend  cum school mate from this family  .  And Turkis from Rainawari , whom I knew , were ignorant of their glorious ancestor ,Pandit Taba Ram Turki  'Betab'. 

 Pandit Taba Ram wrote Masnavis ( long epic poems with historical or philosophical themes ). I am informed that his Masanavis were prescribed in post graduation studies in  the University of Tehran. He was a  Persian  scholar  who could  also read and write Arabic.   It is believed that he was a student of Pandit Daya Ram Kachru (1743 A.D. to 1811 A.D.)  another Arabic and Persian scholar from Kashmir .  So was he   very close to Pandit Birbal Kachru (1789 - 1859 A.D.)  Persian scholar ,historian, Poet  and writer who wrote   voluminous history of Kashmir In Persian .

Persian language  attained the status of official language during the Mughal  rule ( 1586-1753 ) in Kashmir. This status was  retained the during the Afghan rule  (1753-1819)  . This being so,  many Kashmiri writers and scholars turned towards  Persian language and wrote / produced number of books on   history,  literature  and  poetry .  Though Ghani Kashmiri remains  the  tallest and most popular Persian poet to this day  in Persian literature   yet   no less is  the contribution of   Pandit Taba Ram Turki  to the Persian literature. His contribution  has brought  forth  noteworthy remarks  from competent critics that in the mastery of the Persian language , Pandit Taba Ram and some Kashmiri Pandits were second only to the Persians.  

J.K. Banerji in his book  'Encyclopaedia of Kashmir' chapter 16  (  From the Cultural past to the  Front ) writes :

"Outstanding among the Hindu Pandits who made important contributions to Persian poetry may be mentioned the name of Pandit Taba Ram Turki 'Betab' whose Jang Nama reached classic heights."

Noted  historian and author Gwasha Lal Kaul  Chapter 17 ( Cultural Heritage ) from the  book “Encyclopaedia of Kashmir” writes this:-

 "Jangnama by Taba Ram Turki stands on the same footing as Shahnama of Firdausi".

Pandit taba Ram  was a Personal friend of Mulla Mohd Taufiq  (  author Shahnama e Kashmir  In Persian ). Mullah  Muhammad  Taufiq  belonged  to the  family  of  Judoha,  and  resided  in  the  vicinity  of  Jamia  Masjid,  Srinagar .He was a  pupil  of  Mullah  Sati,  and  became  a  well  known poet of his time.  Taufiq is regarded by some as next only to Ghani.  He   occupied  the foremost  position  among  the  poets  of  the  day.    In  addition  to  his  Diwan,  he  has  written  treatise titled 'Shaibt, Sarufa, Bahi i  Lavil'. 

Poet , writer and  scientists , Ayaz Rasool Nazki adds thsi :

"After his education, Taba Ram Turki  was appointed a 'Kardar' and spent most of his service career at village Breng in Anantnag area. He was a frequent visitor to the darbar of Pt. Raj Kak Dhar who was himself a gifted poet and wrote under takhalus 'Farukh'. On one occasion , someone recited Mulla Tawfeeqs sher ....which was applauded by all . Raj Kak threw a challenge ...can anyone compose a better verse in same meter etc....Betab took the challenge and produced a master piece...he had put a condition that he will be suitably rewarded....Raj Kak ordered his men to deliver 100 kharwars of paddy at Betabs residence.And Tawfeeq Sher is...

shikasta rangiye man ba tabeeb dar jung ast 
ilaje darde saram husne sandali rang ast

Betab sher is ......

siyah bakhtam wa az bakhte khaesh khursandam
chara ki bakhte man wa zulfe yar hum rang ast..."

Mulla Taufiq and Taba Ram would share ideas and poems by  seeing each other or through exchange of letters  . He was a witness to defeat of Afghans and arrival of sikh forces of Maharaja Ranjit Singh of Lahore . Defeat of Azim khan  the Afghan governor  in the battle at shopian ashmir has been versified by him in his “Jangnama “.  Betab  also composed 'Ranjit Nama 'and 'Akbar Nama' . Akbar Nama relates to  Wazir Akbar Khan or Amir Akbar khan ( 1816-1845 ), a Pashto speaking  Afghan prince. He was a  General and finally Emir for about three years until his death. Apart from a valiant fighter , he was a lover of fine arts . Wazir Akbar Khan led the  revolt in Kabul against the British  forces  of  William McNaughten, Alexander Burnes and  Major-General William Elphinstone . 

Pandit Taba Ram was  was also summoned by Akbar Khan  to Kabul and honoured  for his skill as Persian poet .  He also visited Lahore and was honoured by Maharaja Ranjit singh in his Darbar where he also met the  powerful and influential   Raja Dina Nath , a Kashmiri Pandit and  the Finance Minister of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. 
In 1861, 14 years after  his death,  a comprehensive   Diwan of poems of Pandit Taba Ram Turki   was published .

(Avtar  Mota )

Tuesday, January 23, 2018




My salute to Prof. waseem Barelavi (Born 1940) for writing this moving poem...

(Na aaye shahar Mein Aissi raat )

Phoolon jaisse rishtay chhoote
 khushboo jaisse saath
Na  Aaye shahar mein Aissi Raat…

Maa ki aankh ka tara khoyaa
Baap ka apna saaya
Ghar se nikla hi kyon thaa
Jo ghar ko laut na Paaya
Jeevan thehra haanpta panchhi
Maut ke lambe haath…..
…………………Na aaye shahar mein Aissi raat

Sannaate ka seena
cheer gayyi ek andhi goli
Behray huve barson ke rishtay
 goongi pyaar ki boli
Kis ki jeet ka jashn manaayein
Aansoon ki Barsaat
 ………………………….Na Aaye shahar mein Aissi raat

Khoob huyi basti  aur veeranon
 mein aankh micholi
Khoob khili aur khoob hi kheli
sab ne khoon ki holi
Koyi sach bole to kahe
kyaa Aaya kis ke haath
…………………………………Na aaye shahr mein Aissi Raat..

(Autar Mota )

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Sunday, January 21, 2018



Ghalib's world is vast and you can't fit him into any one category of issues or subjects . In ghazals , he carries , not only a unique intensity of emotions but also a perfection of form and a deep feeling for the beauty of the world . Very consciously, he feels himself to be a part of the cosmos to which he attempts to touch and view through his poetry.
The inquisitive mind of Ghalib seek to know the nature of the cosmos when he says :

 “ Sabz o Gul kahaan se Aaye hain

Abr Kya cheez hai havaa  kyaa Hai

( Ghalib )

“Where from have these
 Flowers and greenery come?
What are  these clouds all about ?
What is the  secret of the  Air  ?"

   Ghalib’s creativity is enigmatic  that has anguish and restlessness of a relentless seeker  of the truth.  Ghalib  also  made  attempts to  unravel reality through mundane worldly  experiences . Even as a lover , he seeks to know nature of  reality . I quote :

Ye Pari Chehra Log Kaise hain,

Ghamza o Ishva o Adha Kyaa Hai ?
( Ghalib )

"What are these  faces that look like fairies ?
How does one describe their tempting  and  seductive  demeanour  ?"

As a poet of humanity, he is free from all narrow inhibitions of sect, segment or religion. He is frank, straight and unambiguous to say that his love is also sensuous even if erected on a foundation of idealism and self surrender. His poetry leaves your mind free but creates its passage through your heart.  

I have done comparative study of five Upnishads, philosophical verses of Adi Sankara and Ghalib’s poetry . Undoubtedly so many couplets of Ghalib reveal the core message of Vedanta / Upnishads .I have no source to verify if Ghalib had ever learnt sanskrit or read Upnishads in Persian translation . How he came so close to the core philosophy of Vedanta / Upnishads ? This is an enthusing mystery that can be a subject for wide research. Did he read *Dara Shikoh's Persian translation of Upnishads ? I can't comment for i have no authentic source to fall back upon.

Dr Gopi Chand Narang ,the well known scholar and authority on Ghalib gives a clue. Dr Narang writes :

“ Ghalib was highly influenced by Persian poetry of Mirza Abdul Qadir Bedil ( 1642-1720 ). Bedil was a lover of Upnishads and had with him a Persian translation of “Yog Vashishtha” that he read and  that influenced his thought ."

And  Yog Vashistha consists of about 29000 verses .‌Yoga Vashistha consists of six Books .
 ‌Within these  six books  are stories told by sage Vashistha in the form of a dialogue  with  Sri Rama . These books unfold the major Yogic and Hindu philosophical and religious themes .
According to Yoga Vashistha , happiness visits a human being should he sincerely work for it. His action or effort must  always   be in four components . These components  of effort are; SAMO (quietude of mind) , VICHARA ( Spirit of Enquiry) ,SANTOSHA ( Contentment ) and SATSANG ( The Company of realized ones). The philosophy of Yoga Vashistha says that   true happiness resides in our own nature. And our true nature is beyond pain and pleasure. The pain and pleasure are reactions that arise from our cravings and bind our consciousness .

 These Verses have a philosophical foundation similar to those found in Advaita Vedanta .  It is a treatise on universe , human mind , Maaya , Brahman and the fundamental the principles of non-duality.

It may not be out of place to mention that Sultan Zain ul Abdin,  fondly known as Budshah was also a lover of Yoga Vashistha .It was Sanskrit scholar and his court historian Srivara who read passages from " Yog Vashishtha " and explained these to the liberal and tolerant Sultan that kashmir ever saw .

Mirza Ghalib was thus  influenced by Persian poet  Mirza Abdul Qadir Bedil ( 1642-1720 ). Bedil was a Sufi poet of Indian School  or what is known as SABK E HINDI . He had  done wide study of ancient Indian Philosophers and  Influence of  Buddhist philosopher  Nagarjuna and  Adi Sankra is observed in Persian Poetry of Bedil.   I quote a couplet of Bedil ;

’aumrîst kî sargarm-e bayân-e heechîm
tumâr gushâyee dâstân-e heechim
bâ nâmi az ân mîyân, zi mâ qane’a bâsh
mâ qâsed-e paighâm-e jahân-e heechîm

( Bedil )

Across ages, we are being amused at expressing worthlessness
and we are the opener of pages of the stories of nothingness
You could expect nothing from us, but name,
we are the messengers of the world of nothingness .

   (Translation  Nasim Fekrat ..  Courtesy Kabul Diary )

The above quatrain reflects  Buddhist  philosophy. Bedil was also  influenced by Buddhist and  Hindu philosophy of SHUNYATA  OR NOTHINGNESS .
  So  Like  Nagarjuna and  Adi Sankara  ,  Ghalib and      Bedil   were engaged in resolving  the  Mystery of Reality .


As sample , I put forth a few couplets of Ghalib with relevant selection from Upnishads / Adi Sankara's Verses. .. 

Jab Ki Tum Bin Koyi nahin Mojood
Phir Yeh Hangaama aey Khuda Kyaa hai ?
( Ghalib )


(When nothing here exists without you,
Then wherefore all this tumult. 0 Lord? ) 

“ God / truth alone exists as the substratum and this entire world is merely an appearance. It stands immutable and alone in all high glory and divinity as pure existence consciousness pervading the entire universe ”

( Shvetashavatra Upnishad )


Huun Me Bhi Tamaashaai Nairang e tamanna
Matlab nahin Kuchh Iss se Ke matlab hi bar Aave..

( Ghalib )


( I am wanting to see ,
the outcome of my yearning.
My desires may come to fruition
But it is not predictable .
I should better act as a witness to my own doing.) 

“Act he must . As he acts so does he become. The doer of good becomes good. The doer of sinful actions become sinful. By virtuous actions, he becomes virtuous; and by evil actions evil.”

(Brihadaranyaka Upanishad)


Nashwa-o-nooma hai asal sey Ghalib farooh ko
Khaamoshi hi sey nikley hai jo baat chaahiye .
( Ghalib )

Meaning ..

“ Leaves and branches grow due to water and nutrition  from roots , So does the much needed and real expression emerge from silence and not from words or speech “

Basaan e sabza rag e khwaab hai zubaan ijaad
Karay hai khamushi Ahvaale be Khudaaan Paida
( Ghalib )


“ Dreams too speak to us like leaves of grass ,
those who are aware
know only the speech of soundless silence .”

“The causal and the resultant conditions, the non-apprehension and misapprehension of reality, do not exist in Turiya. Silence is awareness, it is the Atman, the Self.”
(Mundaka Upanishad)

“That which clearly manifests Itself in the waking, dream, and dream-less sleepstates; which is inwardly perceived in the mind, in various forms, as an unbrokenseries of ‘I’ impressions; which is the witness of the ego, ‘Buddhi’ (intellect), etc.which are of diverse forms and modifications; and which shines as the eternal existence-knowledge-bliss absolute, know through this Atman, thy own self,within thy heart.”

( Adi Sankara .. ‘Vivekachudamani’’ )

( 4)

Mohabbat mein Nahin hai fark jeenay or marnay kaa
Useeko dekh key jitay hain jis kaafir pe dum niklay
( Ghalib)

Meaning ...

“ Life or death make no difference to a lover,
As lover, I live merely by looking at my beloved
whose very sight is the cause of my demise.”

“Whosoever, living substance or animals and objects in the world are living on each other…like parasites…. All are honey and nectar of and for each other.”

(Brihadaranyaka Upanishad)


Hai Saadagi e zehan Tamanaa e tamaasha
Jaae ke Assad Rang e chaman Baakhtani hai
( Ghalib )


“ The desire to be known and noticed ,
What Innocence , Assad !
Even the garden’s bloom is transitory
and destined to vanish.”

“ What do you seek in this transitory world ?
Seek to know him from whom all beings are born;
In whom ,
Being born, They live ;
And to whom they return at death,
He is Brahman .”

( Taittriya Upnishad )


Ham wahaan hain jahan sse hamko bhee
Kuchh hamaari khabar nahin Aatee..
( Ghalib )

Meaning …

(I am at that stage from where,
even I get no news of my own self)

Now see how close Ghalib comes to the concept of “Turiya “ a state of “ pure consciousness” ...

“Not inwardly cognitive, nor outwardly cognitive, not both-wise cognitive, not a cognition-mass, not cognitive, not non-cognitive, unseen, with which there can be no dealing, ungraspable, having no distinctive mark,non-thinkable, that cannot be designated, the essence of assurance,
of which is the state of being one with the Self the cessation of development, tranquil, benign, without a second, such they think is the fourth. He is the self (Atman). He should be discerned.”

(Mandukya Upanishad)


Hastee ke mat fareb mein Aa jaaiyo ‘Asad’
Aalam tamaam halqaa-e-Daam-e-khayaal hai..
( Ghalib )

Meaning …….

( Get not trapped by the deception of this existence O ! “Assad “
This visible world in its entirety ,
belongs to the realm of imagination only.)

"Brahman is the only truth, the world is not real, and in the end there is no difference between Brahman and individual 'Self' (Atman)." (Brahma satyam jagat mithya, jivo brahmaiva naparah)

( Adi Sankara from Vivekachudamani )


Jab tawaqqu hi uth gayii  Ghalib

Kyon kisi ka gila kare koi.

(Ghalib )

Meaning …..

“When all expectations are  shed,” Ghalib”.

 What for and why  should one have any  complaint against any person ?”

"When every desire found in the human heart is liberated,
then a mortal becomes immortal and here one attains to God.
When all the knots of the heart here on earth are cut,
then a mortal becomes immortal.

( Katha Upnishad )


Ranjh uthanay se  bhi khushi hogi
Pehlay dil dard aashna keejiye ..
( Ghalib )


  “In  sorrow   also , you shall find  contentment  

 Let you acquaint your  heart with throbbing  Compassion   first  “

 Upnishads say that sorrow  mostly comes by attachment to sense objects and in  detachment  lies  the continuous / unaltered state of   happiness. For this ,  the mind  needs to be trained  first for undertaking that journey of detachment to arrive at unaltered  state of happiness.

“ He who knows the  bliss of that Brahman , from whence all speech , with the mind , turns away unable to reach it , he fears nothing .”

 (Taittrya Upnishad )


Juz naam Nahin soorat e Aalam Mujhe manzoor
Juz vaham Nahin hasti e Ashiya meray Aagay..

( Ghalib )
Meaning ...
(Whatever i see is nothing more than a name for me ,
The forms of this world that i see ,
Nothing more than an illusion for me,)

Upnishads say that this world is empirical reality ( Maaya ) and not absolute reality ( Brahman ) . But Brahman is the cause of this universe . The world thus is something like an unreal perception of the viewer . An illusion not because it does not exist, but because it is not what it appears to be all the time. From an absolute perspective, the material universe is a temporary creation.

Upnishads assert that mind has the power to perceive the world as it is, as well as fabricate the world as it wants to perceive it. Mind is a means to see the world but it is prone to flaws. In this Ontological quest man has to make a serious attempt to realize the "true reality ( Brahman ) behind perceived reality ( Maaya )". That Brahman has no attributes or characteristics.

Dr S.Radhakrishnan writes

" Brahman is the real , The universe is false .Atman ( real self ) Is Brahman , nothing else ."

 German Philosopher *Arthur Schopenhauer   in his book " Die Welt" ( in one specific   passage on Vedantic Concept of Maaya  )  writes :

'It is Maya, the veil of deception, which blinds the eyes of mortals and makes them behold a world of which they cannot say that it is or that it is not: for it is like a dream; it is like the sunshine on the sand which the traveler from afar takes to be water; or the stray piece of rope he takes for a snake'.

So Long so much….

( Avtar Mota )


Dara Shikoh was a great lover of Upnishads and had 52 Upnishads translated into Persian just two years before he was executed  .His translation Sirr-e-Akbar (The Greatest Mystery ) was completed in 1657.
He also got Bhagavad-Gita and the Yoga Vashishtha translated into Persian .In his foreword to Sirr e Akbar, Dara wrote :-

" Happy is he, who having abandoned the prejudices of vile selfishness, sincerely and with the grace of God, renouncing all partiality, shall study and comprehend this translation titled 'The Greatest Secret ' [Sirr-i-Akbar], knowing it to be a translation of the words of God. He shall become imperishable, fearless, unsolicitous, and eternally liberated."

Har Khaam O Peche ke Shud az Rtaab e Zulfe Yaar shud
Daam Shud Zanjeer shud Tasbeeh Shud Zunaar shud
( Dara Shikoh )

(All the twists and curls are of my beloved ‘s tresses
Here is the snare ,
Here are the chains ,
She is the rosary
And she is the janevoo ( Sacred Thread of Hindus or Zunaar )"

Dara Shikoh's translation of the Upanishads into Persian played a  very significant role in  attracting  the west to the wisdom of the Upanishads. It began with France..  In 1671, Francis Bernier, a French traveler, took  a copy of the  Persian translation to France and got it translated to french...................Bernier was briefly personal physician to prince Dara Shikoh (The eldest son of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan) , and after Dara Shikoh was killed ,he became physician to  Aurangzeb .He stayed in India for about 12 years .He met so many Persian and Sanskrit  scholars of India .While leaving India, he  took with him loads of  Sanskrit and Persian Manuscripts/ Books.........................Victor Cousin (1792-1867  ), the reputed  French Philosopher also wrote  that Vedanta and the philosophy of the Upanishads, is the highest philosophy that mankind has ever produced. ..............................Upnishads were  widely read in France by so many French philosophers of 20th century .This long list includes Jean Paul   Sartre ,Andre Malaraux   and Albert Camus


And German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer ( 1788-1860 ) was among the greatest admirers of the Upanishads in the west.

The Upanishads were translated from Persian into French and, later, Latin by Anquetil Duperron. Schopenhauer got hold of a Latin translation of a Persian translation of The Upanishads.Schopenhauer book "The World as Will and Representation" brings forth the message of Upnishads .

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