Monday, December 28, 2020



COMMUNICATION   BETWEEN  INCHARGE WURA ( makeshift   large kitchen for the marriage  ) AND THE  HEAD  WAZA  ( head cook  )  IN A KASHMIRI  PANDIT  MARRIAGE .

( In this photo ,a Wura incharge is being served special Kehwa tea prepared in a Samovar by the cook )

The Head  Cook:-

“ Bobu ji  cigerrette aav na  Kehn.  Aeiss moklaavav ye Krai-paak ta aeiss karav nendri ganta . Rum Katie  chhe, tseir guv .  Kyoothh chhus noon. Yathh thav  zang. “

 ( Pandit ji , get some  cigarettes . We will finish this deep  frying  work and take rest for an hour or so. Where is the Rum? We are late . Are the dishes tasty ?Put  some Zang (currency notes ) into  the plate.”

The Incharge  Wura :-

“  Yim gayi cigerrette .  Chaav me ti akha.  Ye gayi  XXX Rum. Yin zyada chakh. Vaeni chhuyi kaar aeti.  Baraat iya subhas  saada aath baje. Daftar valen gatchhi tayaar aasun. Akh gilaas thavizi  me  baapat  tal  kun. Noon  ta maza chhukh  zabar . Zang diyi yezman paanai . Ma he gham.“ 

( Keep these cigarettes . Light a cigarette for me as well. This is your XXX Rum bottle. Don’t  drink beyond limits . You have to cook  some more dishes .The Baraat will be here at 8.30 A.M.You have to keep food ready for those Baraatis  who have to attend their offices . Make a   drink  for me as well and keep it hidden over there . The dishes that I tasted  are well cooked .  The Yajmaan ( family head ) will himself put currency notes in your plate . Why do you  worry ?”

We lived this culture and communication  . 

( Avtar Mota )


Waza in Kashmiri means a cook.

 Wura or the huge makeshift Chulha ( hearth) was created in open for large-scale cooking during marriages in the Kashmir Valley. Timber ,generally from willow trees was burnt in Wura for cooking many dishes simultaneously.

Wura was erected on an auspicious day as per Bikrami calender. The cook would come to erect Wura  using mud and bricks. This cook had to be given' Zang ' comprising of rice, salt, and cash.

During marriage functions,  some trusted acquaintance or a close member of the family would be made incharge of the Wura. The person had to be experienced apart from being firm . Custody and control over  provisions , vegetables, spices,edible oil would be entrusted to him. He would sit near the Wura as the cooks arrived . Quite often he would sleep on the Voguv (  hay mat) near the Wura.  He would be  there til cooking and eating was over. He would ensure proper discipline and order in cooking and distribution of food to invited guests. He would gossip with the cooks and keep them in good humour to ensure that cooking was done to perfection. The cooks or Wazas would go to him for anything and everything they needed. He would be asked to taste dishes once they were ready. The cooks demanded some money from him as Zang ( a sort of Baksheesh) if everything was perfect.

Cooking was done in big Degchas( brass pots ) that were usually collected from neighbours and relations . Special identification marks of these Degchas were noted in a diary to facilitate return. We would see marks like KN( for Kashi Nath) or MLR ( for Mohan Lal Razdan) or KKK ( Kanwal Krishen Kaul) engraved on the rim of the Degcha. Metal tubs, Kadaais , drums (for storing water) ,Samovars and Dullus  were also collected from neighbours or relations who demonstrated  unprecedented soldarity and support during such functions. Thalis (plates) ,glasses and khasus( bronze tea cups) were available on nominal  rent .  In Rainawari , we would rent  a boat ( Demba naav) for these collections . It meant boating and a great entertainment. This activity would create new friends and newer  bonds amongst the volunteers and workers who would be Mohalla boys and relations of the family( solmenizing the marriage).A spirit of camaraderie was starkly  visible amongst these volunteers and workers.

Beddings  were generally collected from neighbours and relations by a team of dedicated volunteers . The neighbours would  readily offer accomodation to the guests of the family marrying their son or daughter. Even Muslim neighbours would readily provide all possible help to Pandits during such events.

While procuring provisions for the marriage and storing them, every  Kashmiri Pandit family would buy two or three bottles of Rum for the cooks. This was done  through friends or acquaintances who had some source or link in CSD outlets .

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Sunday, December 20, 2020


(Prem Nath Dar is explaining something to Shastri Ji while Indira Gandhi and artist Som Nath Khosa are listening. The photo was clicked in New Delhi during the painting exhibition of artist Som Nath Khosa.)
                                              ( Haksar Haveli of Bazar Sita Ram,Delhi )
                                                                  ( Prem Nath Dar)

                                                ( Marriage invitation card of Prem Nath Dar)                       

PREM NATH DAR (1914- 1976)
Pem Nath Dar,  Urdu writer and  close confidant  of  Sheikh Mohammad Abdullah  was married  to Kumari  Lalita Devi Bhat  (name changed after marriage- Prem Pratima Dar)of Chaurasi Ghanta, Bazaar Sitaram, Delhi. The ancestors of Lalita Ji had migrated out from Kashmir during  Afghan rule.
Sita Ram Bazar Delhi was  the main settlement of Kashmiri Pandits who moved  out  during the dark days of Afghan rule in Kashmir. Though they served  the  Maharajas and the Nawabs  of United Provinces , Rajasthan, Punjab  or Madhya Pradesh ,they  constructed  large Havelis  with  gardens in  Sita Ram Bazar( Delhi) . Dhars , Atals , Kauls , Mushrans ,Hukkus , Haksars , Bhatts, Zutishis , Kallas  and Handoos  stayed in this locality  before    shifting to Allahabad, Kanpur , Lahore , Lucknow, Rewa  etc.    Even Kamla Nehru was born as Kamla Atal ( Kaul ) in this locality in the famous Atal House . Her grandfather  Pandit Krishen Lal Kaul Atal had served  the courts of Maharaja of Rewa , Jaipur and Jodhpur. Dr Jagat Mohini  of Rattan Rani hospital ,Sathu Barbar Shah,  Srinagar also  belonged  to Atal family  which had moved to Lahore from Sita Ram Bazar ,Delhi . Another prominent building of Bazar Sita Ram was known as ' Swroop Narain Ki Haveli  'that belonged to the Haksar family. This locality was named after Diwan Sita  Ram Zutshi  .The Zutshis had a palatial Bungalow  in this area apart from Jagir in Ludhiana ,Jalandhar and some other places. Diwan  Sita Ram Zutshi's son, Mohan Lal Zutshi , travelled   to Europe,Central Asia and other countries during the British Raj  .

In 1975, when Sheikh Abdullah signed the accord with the then prime minister of India Indira Gandhi, he remembered his old comrade. The Sheikh recalled Prem Nath Dar to Srinagar to serve him as his Press & Publicity Advisor. Unfortunately , Prem Nath Dar died suddenly in September 1976 due to heart failure.  As an obituary,   Shamim Ahmed Shamim, former  member parliament from Srinagar   ( writer and a brilliant journalist ) wrote a memorable  write up  "Prem Nath Dar- Mera Yaar" (Prem Nath Dar- My Pal),  in his  Urdu newspaper  "Ainaa" published from Srinagar.

 Prem Nath Dar was  born at Badiyar Bala ,   Srinagar in 1914.  After completing his education, he joined hands with Sheikh Mohammad Abdullahin his fight against Maharaja's rule .For this ,he joined the National Conference party  headed by the Sheikh . After his marriage, he shifted to Delhi  and worked for the Statesman and Hindustan Times. From Newspapers, he moved to AIR and retired as the Deputy Director General in 1973. In Delhi ,he came closer to many literary stalwarts including Devendra Satyarthi, Josh Malihabadi, Arsh Malsiyani, Jagan Nath Azad , Sagar Nizami, Rewati Sharan Sharma . He was also associated with Progressive Writers movement and had close association with Ali Sardar Jafri, Syed Sajjad Zaheer , Rajinder Singh  Bedi and Krishen Chander .

 Prem Nath Dar was a prominent writer  of Urdu. His Urdu short stories like . Kaghaz ka Vasudev, Doodh, Uttarai, Aakh Thoo, Zanshirin, Gidh, Chadawa,Kofta, Neeli Aankhen, Geet Ke Chaar Bol, Paani se Gadha Lahu, Bhoot Pret, Faayada be Faayad Beech Andherey, Zindagi ke Ghoont, Neeli Botal, Dinon ka Pher,Tehalil Nafsee,Ghalat Phehami etc.  became quite popular. These short stories were  published in his collections titled  “Kagaz Ka Vasudev”  “Neeli Aankhen” , " Betaal Lamhe " and "Chinaron  ke saaye mein" . He also wrote some musical operas and plays.

His contribution towards creation and development of Pamposh Colony in Delhi has been immense. The colony was meant to create a single settlement for such Kashmiri families  residing in Delhi as had moved out of Kashmir in early forties of the last century. The colony was given practical shape in 1950s .

He  remained in good books of  Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru,Lal Bahadur Shastri, and Indira Gandhi .He was close to Durga Prasad Dhar, Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad and many more  national leaders .Artist Som Nath Khosa was his close friend .

So long so much.

( Avtar Mota)

( My special Thanks to  Sh.Jag Prakash Dar son of Shri Prem Nath Dar  for this photograph. )

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Thursday, December 3, 2020


                    ( A Deepawali Rangoli  )
( A Vyoog being drawn during the marriage in a Kashmiri Pandit family)
 ( Women drawing Kolam in Tamil Nadu)


Kolam or the artistic  patterns created by women in Tamil Nadu with powdered rice  or the  colourful Rangoli of north India  is  similar to the Vyoog drawn by Kahmiri Pandits during marriages and other auspicious events  .  


Sanskrit scholar, Dr Ved Kumari Ghai writes this :- 

“  The Nilamata Purana testifies to the existence of the art of  Bumisobha or decoration of the ground with paint . This seems to have been a necessary item of most of the religious and secular functions. Vyoog – a circular pattern drawn on the ground on which a Kashmiri bridegroom has to stand before entering, for his marriage, the house of the bride, is a direct descendant of Bhumisobha mentioned in the Nilamata Purana.”

Kolam in Tamil Nadu , Alpana in West Bengal, Jhoti or Chita in Odisha, Muggulu in Andhra Pradesh,  Aripana  in Bihar  and the colourful Rangoli in the  North India are akin to  the Vyoog of Kashmiri Pandits . All these decorations fall in the category of Bhumisoba .

( Avtar Mota )

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Tuesday, December 1, 2020


     ( Bachhi Darwaza .New construction..Photo Avtar Mota)
  ( Kathi Darwaza)
     (Hari Parbat fort )
         ( Sangeen Darwaza near Firdous Cinema)
( Kathi Darwaza)
      ( Inscription on the top of the Kathi Darwaza)


Emperor Akbar built a new city below Hari Parbat and constructed a fort on the top of the Hari Parbat hill  ( Koh e Maraan) . Tuzuk I Jahangiri mentions that the fort and the fencing around Hari Parbat was got done as per orders of Emperor Akbar in 1598.  However, some additions , alterations and renovations of the fort were later done during the period of Afghan rule in Kashmir.The new city was fenced ( 5km in circumference) with a high stone wall all around that had three gates ; Kathi Darwaza, Sangeen Darwaza and Bachhi Darwaza . All these entrances were erected with heavy stones.
At page 60 of the book " Kashmir Through Ages " we read this:-

"Akbar brought Raja Todar Mal with him to Kashmir. He fixed his camp at Pattan ,measured the whole land around Hari Parbat and settled the revenue. The labourers who were employed in the construction of the new city were paid at the rate of six Annas a day if  married and four Annas if unmarried. He maintained an army of 4892 cavalry and 92400 infantry. He visited Kashmir three times. "

R. C. Kak writes:

" The Kathi Darwaza seems to have been the principal entrance, judging from the fact that the inscriptions have been put up only here. It is a very simple structure, comprising a domed chamber in the middle with two side-recesses. Its only external decorations are rectangular and arched panels and two beautiful medallions, in high relief, on the spandrels of the arch. Akbar's inscription runs as follows:

Bina-e qila'-e Nagar-Nagar bud
Ba 'ahad-e padshah-e dad-gustar
Sar-e Shahan-i 'alam Shah Akbar
T'ali Shanahu Allah-u Akbar
Shahanshah-e ki dar 'alam misalash
Na bud ast-o na khwahad bud digar
Karor-o dah lakh az makhzan firistad
Du sad ustad Hindi jumla chakar
Na kardah hechkas bigar anja
Tamami yaftand az makhzanash zar
Chil-o char az julusi padshahi
Hazar-o shash zi tarikh-e payambar.

Translation: The foundation of the fort of Nagar-Nagar was laid in the reign of the just sovereign, the king of kings, Akbar, unparalleled among the kings of the world, past or future. He sent one crore and ten lakhs (of rupees) from his treasury and two hundred Indian master-builders, all his servants. No one was forced to work without remuneration. All obtained their wages from his treasury. (In the) forty-fourth year after the accession of the Emperor (and) 1006 after the prophet."

In fact there are two inscriptions on the top stones of Kathi Darwaza. The other inscription gives the name of Mir Muhammad Hussain who supervised the entire construction activity ordered by Akbar for this new city known as ' Nagar Naagar '.
The Sangin Darwaza, "the stone gate," differs from Kathi Darwaza in being more ornate. The exterior is decorated by two corbelled windows, and there are two stairs, one on each side, which give access to the roof. The Bachhi Darwaza has been built new as the old entrance had crumbled down.

( Avtar Mota).

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Monday, November 23, 2020


My new Kashmiri poem " Outsider"..




(Bara-Nebareium  )

"Bar gomut nethanon nanavor
Lobh kuun praraan aur na yor
Waqtan tchheta kornas chikchaav
Hey kas  roshi ta kas kari graav
samayan dopnas doa'dh ma bhaav
Ath manz neraan taemsundh naav
Vaen neerith gayi prath kaanh naav
Vaen kuss gossa ta vaen kossa graav
Vaen Mata vaentov  ' praar tse  praar'
Baeth gayi khaali kuus diyi taar?"

(Avtar Mota)



( The outsider )

(An outsider, naked and barefooted,
waiting aside,
Neither with this group nor with that.
And within him,
time subdued every hope  and all flamboyance,
O friend,  what for and to whom
should we
Complain now?
To us ,time put a restrain on expressing our suffering ,
for the name of our tormentor that appears in that painful story.

Now ,there is neither any complaint
nor any ill feeling either.
Every boat that would carry  us across has departed.
Don't keep telling  "Wait , you wait a little more "

The river banks are deserted ,             
Who will  ferry us  across   now ?)

( Avtar Mota )

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Thursday, November 19, 2020

MY POEM " New Merchants "

My Kashmiri poem 'Naev Baapaer '  or ' New Merchants'..

(Naev Baapaer)

"Kath penji beuthuk Kath vaanas gokh
Yim gayi zakhman  hiend taajir
Shraakh muris manz zevi naabad chukh
Zeiv phirnas manz yim  maahir
Yina zeiv kholakh ya dokh baavakh
Athha peith kananayi vatnaai dhyaar
Yim gayi  mandi hiend  baapari
Ati guv zaal modhur guftaar..."

( Avtar Mota)

In English, I would say this...

(New Merchants)
( What  company you have opted,?
Which shops you are entering?
These businessmen trade in human sufferings.
Sweet words on tongue ,
and a dagger hidden under the cloak,
they are  masters in the art of denying what they say.
Open not your tongue,
confide not  your sorrows to them ,
They may trade them like a commodity and fill  their coffers.
They are the new merchants of the market,
their apparent sweet conversation is to allure and entrap  .)

(Avtar Mota)

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Tuesday, November 17, 2020



                                      (This Painting by Kashmiri Khosa  is titled " Wheel of the time " )
                                                      ( A painting of Kashmiri khosa )
                                             ( A painting of Kashmiri khosa )
                            ( A painting of Kashmiri khosa titled 'Transcendence  ' )
                                           (This painting is titled ' Purush Prakariti Aur Virath ' )
                                         (The artist: Definition of a gentle human being )
                                                         ( The artist  ..Kashmiri Khosa )
                                             ( A painting by Kashmiri Khosa )
                                                       ( A painting by Kashmiri Khosa )
(With Kapila Vatsyan...Kapila Vatsyayan (1928 – 2020) was a leading scholar of Indian classical dance, art, architecture, and art history. She served as a member of parliament and bureaucrat in India, and also served as the founding director of the Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts.She was married to noted Hindi poet SHV Ajneya .She was sister of noted art critic Keshav Malik.)
                                     ( A painting by Kashmiri Khosa titled ' Beyond Sorrow ') )
( "Niagara 1989 " A painting by Kashmiri Khosa .. About this painting , the artist says this :-"The word Niagara as a metaphor taken from Niagara falls which many times is inside me and you as emotions or passions .")
                                                 ( A painting by Kashmiri Khosa )
                                                  ( Introspection by Kashmiri khosa )
                                   (This painting is titled  'Mountains of the mind  ')


Born (1940) in Lahore, Kashmiri Khosa is a well-known artist based in Delhi. Inspired by the family tradition, he reflects Indian philosophy in his language of modern art, which won him a ‘National Award’ in 1981 and President of India’s silver plaque in 1974. His paintings are on display in many national and international art galleries, and also in the significant collections of the National Gallery of Modern Art, Lalit Kala Akademi, Sahitya Kala Parishad (Delhi ) , College of Art ( Delhi ), International Airport Authority of India and numerous private collections in India, America, Canada, Dubai, Hong Kong, Singapore, Switzerland, England and many other countries of Europe. A documentary on his life and art was released by Doordarshan in 2003-2004. He has a studio in Dharmshala ( HP ) where he paints and spends his summer months. He has been a fellow of the Lalit Kala Akademi. 


             ( Interview of  Kashmiri Khosa )

His art appears to have evolved through four phases. The initial phase or phase one appears to have been influenced by sculpture. The subject dominates the colours and the forms in this phase . The second phase of his art looks like a tempest of emotions and passions represented through figurative abstracts full of mystery or unexplained longings. And finally, in the third and fourth phase, he appears to have started looking inwards trying to make known some mysteries hidden deep within the self. This quest led him to study many ancient texts including Vedas and Upnishads and bring the core message to the canvas through his art. The extraterrestrial veneer that appears in his work is not only delightful but magical as well. For three years (1958-1961 ) ,he studied art at the College of  Art, New Delhi.
And about his art , Kashmiri Khosa says this :-
“Over the years, I have been painting and trying to express non-fleeting beauty and the momentous tidings of our minds, along with the very roots of our beings in this modern material world. I came to the conclusion that the usual stances of modern painters like me has no truck with the art community or responsibility towards the human tradition. Therefore it took me time to recognize my obligation beyond the so called claimed freedom of an artist. I have been trying to understand and grasp the very thoughts and wisdom of ancient Indian culture in order to transform them into a modern visual language of art. I have been working in silence and solitude in a small studio under the Dhauldhar Peak of the Himalayas in Dharamsala, India, as perhaps the only Indian artist in our country doing this kind of metaphysical work.”
An extensive interview (along with the reproduction of paintings ) of Kashmiri Khosa was published by Temenos 13 - an International art journal edited by Kathleen Raine and published from London . His artworks were displayed at sixth Babylon International Festival of Art in Iraq 1994. In 2014, he was chosen to represent India and participate as an artist in the international show of “Stitching White Cube Global Village” in Netherlands, Denmark and Germany . He was also was invited to participate in Scope Miami Art (Voice of an artist) in 2015.
Kashmiri Khosa’s father , Pandit Som Nath Khosa studied art at Sir Amar Singh Technical Institute, Srinagar where his teachers included F. H. Andrews and J. C. Mukerjee. He moved to Delhi in 1950 with a desire to paint monumental scenes form Gandhi’s life and exhibit them to masses. As his work became popular , his studio in Delhi was frequented by several dignitaries. Mrs. Indira Gandhi, Lal Bahadur Shastri and Babu Jagjivan Ram supported his mission, and his exhibitions travelled extensively until the end of his life in 1983. Som Nath Khosa’s paintings are still on display in several Gandhian institutions in India and abroad.
Anjali Khosa Kaul , daughter of Kashmiri khosa is a sculptor and a painter whose works can be seen in the National Gallery of Modern Art , New Delhi and with many private collectors the world over. She is a recipient of AIFACS Award and Ministry of Culture fellowship. Ashok Kaul , husband of Anjali Khosa Kaul practices industrial photography and art photography. Rajan Khosa , his son is a well known film maker and artist whose film ‘GATTU’ won many international awards including Best Feature Film (New York Indian Film Festival 2012) and  'Special Mention 'at Grand Prix of the Deutsches Kinderhifswerk (Berlin International Film Festival 2012).
About Kashmiri Khosa's work ,well known art critic , Keshav Malik writes this :-
"The figures that K. Khosa draws are as if sculpted rather than painted. There is no attempt to show off painterly skill but merely the anxiety to explore the timeless dimension,for his art is not that of a perfectionist and performer but of one in favour of regeneration of deeper self. Part reality, part unreality but in this very undefinable something is the essence of art: images searching for the truth of existence, they groping for the missing light, for the responsive human face.There is stillness in his compositions, the stillness at the heart of stones, in unpeopled spaces. It is the stillness of the moon. Thus too, the figures-angelic or serene - in khosa’s work seem to float in ether – that sacred postulate of deep self communings."
Kashmiri Khosa has been the pioneer of an individual style and genre ; a great one that needs attention and appreciation. And above all, he is a great human being who believes in the philosophy of ‘Sarve Bhavantu Sukhina ‘and ’ Live and let live ’. More Power to his brush and the very best wishes to a person who appears to be the definition of humility and gentleness.
I conclude this mini-post with a couplet of Jigar Moradabadi …
“Un ka jo farz hai vo ahl-e-siyaasat janein
Mera paigaam mohabbat hai jahaan tak pahunche ..”

( Avtar Mota )

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(This photograph of a bridge over the Chenab river near Kishtwar, was taken by Samuel Bourne in 1864)
                                                                 ( INCA bridge )

                                   ( Crossing river  Jhelum with the help of  dangerous a rope bridge )

One of the challenges that humanity faced in its mobility and movement since ancient time,  has been  the  safe crossing of rivers , canyons and gorges . For this, even the primitive man invented many methods like inflated animal skins, wooden logs kept on water surface , boats, ropes, bamboo and other trees and many other innovative tools . We know about the twisted  grass and rope bridges of INCA civilization or how our own people from Arunachal Pradesh continue to build rope and bamboo bridges to cross rivers. Iron and RCC structures used for bridges is a late story . And the beam bridged, truss bridges, cantilever bridges,arch bridges, suspension bridges or a cable-stayed bridges are also a later concepts and developments for crossing rivers .
In olden days , river Chenab posed a great challenge to people in J&K . Although inflated animal skins were also used to cross this river, history records that rope suspension bridges were also used to cross the river that mostly passes through hills and ravines . Dangerous to cross, the centre of these bridges usually fell close to water surface of the speeding river. In olden days, at some places below Baramulla town , river Jhelum was also crossed by people using rope bridges .
G.T. Vigne, a British traveller who stayed in India during the first half of the 19th century and travelled extensively through the inner Himalayas , has written beautiful anecdotes about crossing rivers by walking over some dangerous rope bridges . He visited Jammu, Kishtwar, Bhaderwah and almost every part of J&K. Here is one such anecdote.
Doda was winter capital of erstwhile state of Kishtwar. Maharaja Gulab Singh had conquered Doda in 1822 AD for the Lahore Darbaar . G.T. Vigne visited Doda in 1829. Vigne writes this :-
“I travelled from Bhaderwah towards Doda along the nullah there is a deep and rocky nullah, where the Chenab joins it, which I crossed over one of the dangerous bridges I had seen in Himalayan range. The distance of perpendicular rocks is about sixty yards and the bridge is about fifty feet height over the nullah. These pillar less bridges are usually of two types. One like that of Doda. Its structure is like this: A strong rope is spread up to the banks of the river without a swing and tied strongly with the rocks. Like the seat of the cradle a wooden structure slips over the rope. Other ropes are tied to this structure by means of which the structure comes and goes backwards and forwards. The other type of bridges is crossed on foot. Small ropes are bound with small pieces of bark of the boughs and then a thick rope is made of these small ones. This is tied on both the banks of the river, which provides the traveller to place his foot on it. This rope is not thicker than six, seven or eight inches but it is intertwined in such a manner that the tips of the boughs stay outwards and prevent feet from slipping. On both the sides of this rope about four feet high there are hanging ropes, made of the same stuff, which a person crossing the river catches hold of. These ropes are tied with the big rope at a distance of one yard each. The local people do not need any guidance that they should catch hold of the rope strongly and that they must ensure their back foot is firmly fixed before taking the second step.’’
In 1864, Samuel Bourne was another traveller who embarked on a nine-months long expedition to Kashmir and its adjacent districts accompanied by forty-two helpers, personal staff and six palanquin bearers. Starting from Lahore on 17 March 1964, Bourne journeyed through the north and halting in Kangra, Bijnath, Dharamshala, Dalhousie, Chamba, and reaching the Chenab valley in the middle of June. He had his camera with him enabling him to click some priceless pictures of that period all along his journey. He published these photographs in the British Journal of Photography.  Bourne writes  this :-
“I soon found myself again at the Chenab, but this time only to cross it by a rather nervous bridge. The bridge was made of twisted twigs, and swung from the rocks on each side like a suspension bridge, dipping very low in the centre. As this was an interesting object in itself, and with the river and surrounding rocks made a fair picture, I took two views of it but was almost broiled in doing so. I then crossed it without fear or accident, and without the assistance of the man in charge, who is there to conduct timorous travellers across.”
(Avtar Mota)


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( Sunset View of Bahu Fort , Jammu)

The Gazetteer of Kashmir and Ladakh says this about Jammu of 1755

" The town of Jammu was at the zenith of its around the year  prosperity in the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Dev, the eight first in the long line of  Rajput princes who trace their descent from Dalip of Bagju heroes who migrated to Jammu from hereditary estates of the family near Audh.The town is on the right bank of the ravine at an elevation of 150 feet above the bed of the river,and the whole building of the palaces and numerous temples with their glided domes are seen glistening in the sun from a great distance in the plains .At the gate are stationed a guard, writers whose business is to report arrivals,and custom House messengers.After passing the entrance ,in doing which we come on to a plateau ,we advance  on more level  ground along a street or Bazaar." 

Belonging to the Jamwal clan of Rajput's, Raja Ranjit Dev    succeeded in the establishment of his sovereignty in large parts of Jammu hills. He established political stability in the hills of Jammu.Raja Ranjit Dev ruled Jammu from 1728 to 1780 and had 22 Dogra chieftains under him. He extended his rule upto Gurdaspur in Punjab and Chamba in present day Himachal Pradesh. During his rule, Jammu was considered a  flourishing trading centre of North India. 

 Raja Ranjit Dev introduced social reforms such as a ban on Sati  and female infanticide. 

Raja Dhruv Dev (1707-1733)  moved his residence from the old palace in the Purani Mandi area of Jammu, to a new, more spectacular location overlooking the Tawi river, which is today called Mubarak Mandi.Over the years, the palace grew as additions were made. New palaces were constructed during the reign of his son and successor Raja Ranjit Dev (1733-1780 CE).

 Some  temples like  Ranbireshwar Temple , Raghunath Ji Temple ,Gadadhar ( Vishnu) Temple  built by subsequent Dogra rulers like Maharaja Ghulab Singh and Maharaja Ranbir Singh added further glory to the city of temples.

(Avtar Mota)

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Friday, November 13, 2020




For this photo, I wrote these two lines.....

'Vaai zaanh vuchhizeh kaman Pushrovthhus
Trovthhus Maeshrovthhus Putchanovthhus".

"Alas! Never ever you sought to know what befell me after you handed me over to the heartless strangers,
You who dropped me,
 Forgot me 
And tore apart every petal of the flower that i was

(Avtar Mota)

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Tuesday, November 10, 2020



(Sri Jayendra Saraswathi Shankaracharya Swamiji and Sri Sankara Vijayendra Saraswathi Shankaracharya Swamiji at the temple.)
(John Burke's Photo 1868. From the photo ,it is evident that the temple was not in use when Burke visited the site.)

              ( A 1942 photo of the temple) 


  ( Last five  snow Photos courtesy.. Shri Vikramaditya Singh son of Dr Karan Singh Ji )

(1) The Present Shankaracharya hill finds mention in Rajatarangini of Kalhana . He calls it Gopadari hill.Gopaditya was a king of Kashmir and the hill is named after him. King Gopaditya granted entire land below the hill to the Brahmins as Agrahara . The area was known as GOPA AGRAHARA . Agrahara was a grant of land and royal income from it, typically by a king or a noble family in India, for religious purposes, particularly to Brahmins to maintain temples in that land or a pilgrimage site and to sustain their families. Gupkar is a corrupted name of GOPA AGRAHARA .Kalhana mentions that Gopatidtya built a temple on the top of the hill as the shrine of Shiva Jyeshtrudra in 371 BC .Some historians believe that a superstructure was built on an existing temple base by king Gopaditya during his rule. Kalhana mentions that Emperor Lalitaditya also undertook some repair and renovations at the site. It is believed that the Kalasha of the temple was destroyed by an earthquake and Sultan Zain ul Abdin ordered it's repairs during his rule.
(2) Buchhawara, a locality below the hill on lake side was a village in ancient times . It was known as Bhukisirvatika as mentioned by Kalhana .Present day Buchhawara is the corrupted name of Bhukisirvatika.
(3) In 9th century , Adi Sankara visited Kashmir . He also visited the temple of Shiva Jyeshtrudra atop the Gopadari hill. He had come to Kashmir for revival of Sanatan Dharma . He also popularized the Bhakti cult and Shakti worship in Kashmir. Accepting predominance of Shakti cult, Adi Sankara wrote Saundarya Lahari, in praise of Shakti, at the top of the hill. The temple came to be known as Shankracharya Temple after the Visit of Adi Sankara to Kashmir . Adi Sankara also visited Sharda Shrine of Goddess Saraswati and a famous university of learning. The temple was about 100 km away from Srinagar city and presently falls in POK.
(4) Maharaja Ghulab Singh ( 1792-1857 ) laid a proper path from Durga-Naag Temple to the top of the Gopadari hill . The hill came to be known as Shankaracharya hill.
(5) In 1925, the Maharaja of Mysore spent money from his treasury to get electric power to Shankaracharya Temple .
(6) . In April 1961, Shankaracharaya of Dwarkapeetham put the statue of Adi Sankara at Shankaracharaya temple.
(7) Amarnath pilgrims visit at the historic Shankaracharya temple to perform Pooja as a prelude to the commencement of 'Chhari Mubarak' ( Holy mace of Lord Shiva) Yatra to the cave shrine of Lord Shiva In Kashmir .
(8) On Raksha Bandhan day, people throng to the Shankaracharya Temple in large numbers and perform Shiva Pooja and Stuti . One can have a breathtaking view of Dal lake and Srinagar city from the temple. The temple is located at a height of 6000 feet from sea level and about a 1000 feet from Srinagar city.
(9) The temple is a protected monument under ASI act of 1958. 
(10) A photo of the temple was clicked by John Burke in 1868. This view was reproduced in Henry Hardy Cole's Archaeological Survey of India report, 'Illustrations of Ancient Buildings in Kashmir,' (1869), in which he wrote,"'The Takt-i-Suliman Hill overlooks Srinagar, the capital of Kashmir; standing one thousand feet above the plain, it commands a noble view of the Valley and its surrounding ridges of snow-topped peaks...The Temple of Jyeshteswara rests on the solid rock, and consists of an octagonal stone basement twenty feet high, on which is supported a square building: on each of the four sides are two projections which terminate in a pediment and a gable, the latter intersecting the main roof half-way up its slope. The terrace surrounding the Temple is reached by a stone staircase encased between two walls, and a doorway , exactly opposite, leads to the interior, which is a small and dark chamber, circular in plan. The ceiling is supported by four octagonal columns, which surround a Basin containing a Lingam encircled by a snake.' Commanding a panoramic view of the city of Srinagar and Dal Lake, this temple with its square plan, recessed sides and circular inner sanctum is one of the earliest Hindu shrines remaining in Kashmir, dedicated to Shiva, but as yet not firmly dated. " The temple was not in use when Burke visited the site.
(11) Regular Pooja was started at the temple during the rule of  Dogra Kings after a blackstone Shiv Linga was installed in the temple's sanctum sanctorum replacing the ancient Linga lying in broken state  .  Repairs and some renovations were  also carried out during the rule of Sikhs in Kashmir.
(12) As per the book " Kashmir Through Ages", Sultan Sikander spared the temple but changed its name to" Takht e Sulaiman" . The book mentions that Sultan Sikander was made to believe that Mahmood of Ghazni had visited the place and offered prayers at the site. The temple does not figure in the Persian book "Toaftul Ahbab" that gives details of 65 major temples destroyed in Kashmir . It is also not mentioned in Dyadmari's Persian book "Vaakati Kashmir" published from Lahore in 1876 that also lists some temples destroyed in Kashmir . At page 21 of the book "Ancient Remains in Kashmir" , it is mentioned that there were sculptured stones leading from the Shudashyar Ghat of river Jhelum right upto the top of the Shankracharya hill .With these stones, it is said ,the Pather Masjid in the city was built by Nur Jahaan ,queen of Jahangir . R.C. Kak in his book "Ancient Monuments of Kashmir " creates more confusion than resolving one about this temple. 

Further, Takht-i-  Sulaiman is  a common name for various flat-topped mountains throughout the Middle East and Central Asia. Some such mountains are as under :

(1) A peak in the southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.

(2) Sulayman Mountain, Kyrgyzstan

(3)  Takht e Sulayman, archeological remains in Shiraz, Iran.

(4) Takht-e Soleymān, an archaeological site in West Azerbaijan, Iran.

( Avtar Mota )


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CHINAR SHADE by Autarmota is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 2.5 India License.
Based on a work at http:\\\.