Wednesday, August 26, 2020




Shaving is most commonly practised by men to remove their facial hair. A man is called clean-shaven if he has had his beard entirely removed.It is believed that the  ancient  Egyptians and Greeks were the first to promote shaving.

In my childhood and youth, Godrej and  Erasmic shaving soaps were quite popular though shaving creams had also arrived in Kashmir. A piece of alum ( Phatkari ) was always there in the shaving box. It was used to prevent infection from cuts and to act as an astringent to reduce skin irritation and a moisturizer to soften the facial skin.

The shaving box also had a shaving brush, a small iron scissor, a metal Katori for hot water, a napkin, some old and new shaving blades and a blade sharpening tool called hone.A three-piece metallic shaving razor(machine ) was the core device. The metallic shaving razor consisted of three parts, you had to put the blade on the top part then the bottom one and screw the handle.Some elderly persons used the old single piece barber’s razor ( straight razor ). They felt more comfortable with this oldest shaving device.

 Safety razors have been known to exist since at least 1876 when the single-edge Star safety razor was patented by brothers Frederick and Otto Kampfe.In 1895, King Camp Gillette invented the double-edged safety razor, which utilised inexpensive, disposable blades sharpened from two sides. It took him until 1901 to build a working, patentable model, and commercial production began in 1903.Shaving was done with Removeable blades or safety razors since the first quarter of the twentieth century.There was a time when single blade manufacturer Malhotra’s brands Topaz and Lazor ruled the country. The double blade Wilkinson Sword was a British brand. It was followed by Gillette and  7′o clock edge blade. Ashok, Topaz, Panama, Prince, Gillette, Wilkinson sword, Erasmic, 7Oclock, Bharat and Nacet were popular brands of shaving blades sold in Kashmir. Presently cartridge razors,  developed in the 1960s  are mostly used for shaving the world over.

And later during my college days, I noticed that a small bottle of Dettol antiseptic liquid and Boroline cream got added to many shaving boxes.

Even shaving box of Shri S. K. Kak (IAS) had these items only. I happened to see Kak Sahib shaving at his Naidyar , Rainawari residence one day during morning hours. A marriage invitation card had to be delivered to his family. I believe he was director Tourism or Controller Tawaza at that point of time. It could be around 1972 or 1973.I am not sure.Kak Sahib finds mention in V.S. Naipaul's book" An Area of Darkness" as well.

 It is now believed that shaving helps to rid our face of the harmful bacteria. We look younger and better. Research has shown that a beard can make a man look older by almost 10 years.  Shaving helps to remove the daily skin debris that is created along the outermost layer of the skin.  This debris can get impacted within the hair follicles and lead to acne. However, with regular shaving one can remove these dead skin cells without the need to scrub his face.

(Avtar Mota)

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I remember many common names of simple ,affectionate and selfless elderly Kashmiri Pandit  and Muslim  women .These are traditional Kashmiri names . Modern names have not been included.

( A..)


I am only posting typical Kashmiri names..

1 Arien or Arni

2 Boen

3 Deadhar

4 Deadh

5 Divar

6 Gonnar

7 Haa'r

8 Heemaal

9 katiejj

10  Kessar

11 Sampa Kuejj

12 Mataa Kuejj

13 Poshi Kuejj

14 Lachha Kuejj

15 Kong Deadh

16 Maadir

17 Raetch Maal or Raetch Deadh

18 Raa'z

19 Jigir

20 Sangri

21 Sona maal

22 Teikar

23 Vaagar

24 Wanar or Wanar Deadh

25 Yemberzal

 26 Zoon

27 Veshar or Veshar Deadh

28 Zaapir or Zaapir Deadh

29 Bhader or Bhadher Deadh

30 Bata'en or Bata'en Jigir

31 Mogli or Moggal or Moggal Deadh.

32 Kaakaen.

33 Benigaashi

34 Benitaathi

35 Kudher Or Kudher Deadh

36 Beni Jiger

37 Deikka Deadh

38 Vanna Maal or Vanna Jigir

39  Deiva Deadh

40 Beni Deadh

41 Teezmaal

42 Sondhar Deadh or Sondhar Maal

43 Roppa Deadh

44 Kodhamaal

45 Goramaal

46 Sokhmaal or  Sokha Deadh

47 Gondher Deadh

48 Gonna Deadh

(49) Mogalaa'en

(50) Shob Deadh



Some common  Kashmiri names of  Women in Muslim society in Kashmir that come to my mind are as under :-

(1) Sondher Desdh

(2) Raha't Deadh

(3)  Moga'l Deadh

(4) Khatij

(5)  Faata

(5) Zoona Dedh

(6) Dedh

(7)  Katiej

(8) Maala Deadh

(9)  Jaana Deadh

(10) Ben'taath

(11) Jigir

(12) Saaja

(13) Raaja

(14) Taaja

(15) Mokhta

(16) Aashir

(Avtar Mota)

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Sunday, August 23, 2020




I am adding my  three line Kashmiri  poem to this photograph....

Roodhien treta peyi vatta mismaar
Assi vuchh yaaras   praraan  yaar
Mun sadrass na chhu sum na chhu saar..

( Avtar Mota)

In simple English ,I would say like this..

(Heavy rains washed away  pathways and  the roads,
We saw someone still waiting for his loved one.
Who could measure the depth of the ocean known as the  mind?
Who could put an embankment to this ocean ?)

(Avtar Mota)

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Saturday, August 22, 2020




For this flower ,I have written a three line poem in Kashmiri....

"Kong poshas pyav subhas shabnam
Dopnas kya chhuyee rang assi haav ,
Taem kar choppa hokhnas log praarini
Tas Pai  rang vuchhnas thahraav,
Yuthh SamsańĀras yuthh bazaaras
Yutaah jal jal chha moklaav.....

( Avtar Mota)

 In English ,I would say,

"At morning,the dew drenched the saffron flower and said ,
"Let me  see your colour "
The saffron flower remained silent,
 It knew it had to wait
 and get dried to show its colour.
In this world,
In this market.
None gets free so quickly ."

( Avtar Mota)

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Sunday, August 16, 2020




For this photograph ,I wrote this....

Mila tum se to dil yeh kho gaya hai
Yeh qatra tha ,samandhar ho gaya hai
Zamaana munh chhupa ke ja raha hai
Jo hona Chaahiye tha ,ho gaya hai
Yeh kashti wussaton mein kho rahi hai
Ke dariya be-kinaara ho gaya hai..
Jo ziddi tha mithaai doond-ta  tha,
Woh bachaa aaj bokhaa so gaya hai..
Kahi kya baat hai Avtar tum ne
Suni jis ne voh aansoo dho gaya jai

(Avtar Mota)

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Monday, August 10, 2020




When shall you bloom, O tiny and delicate rose of my garden?

Does this mother sing Assad ullah Mir's  Kashmiri song to her child? To me it looks so.Our mothers  have also expressed similar feelings . I quote some lines from the popular   Kashmiri  song :-

" Kar folihem lo golaabo lo
Shar tsalihem lo golaabo lo
Aarwal chhus dazmitchai naarai
Khaar tsalihem lo golaabo lo
Thaeri  ,baagus lollakein  chamanun
Mushaq malihem lo golaabo lo
Ashq-pechaan Nazeen sarvas
Paan valihem lo golaabo lo.."

For my friends who don't understand Kashmiri, I have rendered this beautiful  song into simple English

(  O Rose! My little Rose, When shall you bloom?
O Rose ! When shall my suppressed desires get fulfilled?

Like the wild rose flower ( Aarwal) ,
I have remained  uncared for in this life,
O Rose ,when you bloom, I may not feel so anymore.

The branches, the flower beds and the garden  ,
Everything shall turn  fragrant  ,
O rose when you bloom.

The ipomoea creeper (Ashaq Pehchaan)shall wrap itself
around the cypress tree,
when you bloom o rose, my little rose.

O Rose ,my little Rose ,
When shall you bloom..)

(Avtar Mota)

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Sunday, August 9, 2020


                     ( Changthangi goat )
      ( Amitabh  with a Kani Shawl)
     ( Sarod maestro Amjad Ali Khan wearing a Kani Shawl . He andsl his  sons are with  Dalai Lama )
   ( The Kanis or wooden needles  on the loom)
 ( Kani Shawl border design)
  ( Kani Shawl on the loom )
   ( Kani Shawl bein woven)
 ( Sharmila Tagore wearing a Colourful Kani Shawl)                             

( A Pashmina Kani Shawl from Kashmir)


Pashmina Kani Shawl  has been a  luxury  since  second half 17th century. It was in  great demand by the royals and the elite in  Asia and Europe.

The Pashmina ( soft wool ) for a Kani  Shawl comes from a  special goat known as Changthangi and   found in Tibet and Ladakh. The shawl is woven on traditional looms but instead of a shuttle , wooden  Kanis (  needless ) are  used to weave and create intricate designs that are  already documented.
The documented design for making a Kani shawl is  known as Taleem. Taleem is written on a paper . The design is also  drawn on a graph paper which is filled with desired colours.The weaver keeps the graph paper and the Taleem before him while weaving a Kani Shawl .
The weaver  recites the Taleem or a helper recites the same to him  that directs him to use particular colour  of the thread wrapped on the wooden needle for the design. The Taalim is recited as under:-
“Four  red, two yellow , six  blue… ..Six white , two green , eight pink… "
Something like this  is continuously  heard at the loom.Number over here means the number of times a particular coloured thread is to be used .The weaver keeps his eye on the graph paper as well to see the pattern or design coming up in the shawl. A skilled weaver can weave a length of one inch at the most . Accordingly, a Kani shawl takes many months on the loom. 

Previously Kani shawls were produced  mostly  in Kanihama, Batpora, Kashmir . Now, these shawls are woven  at many places in the Kashmir valley.

Presently machine made Kani shawls are flooding the market. A good semi Pashmina  machine made Kani shawl may cost between 7000 to 15000 rupees while a handmade Kani shawl may go upto rupees  2lakhs . by the machine while  it takes many months to produce one handmade Kani shawl.I have seen a kani saree created by machines . Though imitation ,the  machine made Kani  shawls also look beautiful .

Buying   original handmade Kani Pashmina Shawl is a job that needs some skill and expertise. One needs to know many things  about  Raffal cloth, semi Pashmina cloth and pure Pashmina cloth. One also needs to be expert to distinguish between machine weaving and handloom weaving apart from texture , designs and patterns from Kanihama , the place in Kashmir where Kani Shawl industry was localised. For a  layman, it is very difficult to distinguish between genuine and fake or handmade and machine made Kani Shawl. A Raffal Kani design shawl made on a machine can cost as low as 1200 to 2000 rupees. Similarly machine made semi Pashmina( Raffal mixed with Pashmina ) Kani design Shawl  may  cost between 7000 to rupees 15000 or even less. Pashmina mixing adds to the cost . One needs to be well informed about every aspect of Shawl making  to make a good purchase . Machine made Kani Shawls come mostly from Ludhiana in Punjab though some are lately being manufactured in Amritsar as well. 

In 2009,  Kashmir’s Kani Shawl got the Geographical Indication (GI) status that would legally prohibit people from selling the drapes made at other places under the same name.
Kashmiri Kani shawls were  gifted  as KHILAT by Mughal kings . The practice was also followed by Maharaja Ranjit Singh and many other rulers of the Indian states . 

In 1776, Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte presented his wife Josephine with a Kashmiri Kani shawl.  Many handmade Kani shawls of Kashmir  are on display in  museums the world over.

Let me conclude this mini post with  poem “Sonzal  Rangan Haenz” or “A Rainbow of  Colours  ” written by  Kashmiri poet  Syed Rasool Pompur.I love the poem and  have rendered it  to simple English for Friends who don't  know Kashmiri.

(A Rainbow of Colours)
" A festival of the spring season,
The bright dazzle of endless tulips,
And this lonely  plough in our field,
As if in the bosom of the spring breeze,
Someone has thrust it  painfully.
The spinning wheel  of our time and fate is also tired now,
Weaving  this white,
this green, this yellow,
this red Pashmina ,
weaving  and joining these faded colours .
This sword of this half moon  too broke and fell apart,
That morning star too fell to the ground,
Don't look  towards  that cloudless blue sky,
From that sky , only hail storms pour  down
on the roofs of our beliefs now.
What shall you see by joining these pieces of broken mirror ?
Nothing, except your own innumerable
distorted faces .
Looking at this colourful rainbow of hopes ,
Don't say that the sick has recovered now.."

(Avtar Mota )

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             ( Azad. with Nehru )
      ( Azad with Dr Shanker Dayal Sharma)
                ( Azad with Ali Sardar Jafri )
       ( With poet Arsh Malsiyani (in centre) )
  ( Poet Tilok Chand Mehroom father of Azad)

by Mukta Lall,
Price Rs350/=
Publisher ,Mukta Lall,New Delhi .
(  Phone 011-46100812)

Mukta Lall (born 1944) is the daughter of well known Urdu poet ,scholar,writer and critic Prof. Jagan Nath Azad. Mukta retired from Siemens as Senior Manager and lives in Delhi. I am beholden to her for sending me  books on  jagan Nath Azad  and her grand father poet  Tilok Chand Mehroom apart from this new book.

I need to compliment Mukta Ji  for her efforts in writing these beautiful books and collecting inputs and  material from so many sources in the subcontinent. Rarely  have I seen daughters  taking such pains to keep the memory of their parents alive. She stepped further ahead when she compiled a book on poet Tilok Chand Mehroom , her grand father .  And for this dedicated work, she also learnt Urdu and did a correspondence course from Jamia Milia Islamia ,New Delhi .

Jagan Nath Azad (1918-2004)  was born in  Isa-khel (district Mianwali now in Pakistan)  on 5th December ,1918. Isa-khel town  is situated on the bank of river Indus. It is a historical town  named after Isa Khan a famous Niazi chief. Mianwali district covers an area of 5,840 square kilometres.

Jagan Nath Azad’s father, Tilok Chand Mehroom  was a teacher ( Headmaster,) apart from being a well known Urdu poet of his time .As child ,Azad  saw poets like Abdul Aziz Fitrat, Azhar Amritsari  ,Zia Sarhadi ,Adam and many more frequenting his house  and  accordingly developed a taste for writing poetry at an early age .

One day ,while crossing  the Indus river in a boat , poetry was initiated to young Azad by his father. Azad was barely  five year old boy at that time. His father  recited a line to him, "Pahaadon  ke opper bane hain makaan"  and asked  little Azad to complete the  second line . " Ajab inn ki soorat Aajab Inn ki shaan" said  young Azad promptly. He was immediately corrected by his father to use word Shauqat and not soorat. And he said"Ajab Inn ki Shauqat Ajab Inn ki shaan". And the poet had arrived.

Azad did his matriculation from  Raja Rammohan Roy High school , Mianwali  and  joined D.A.V . College , Rawalpindi for completing his F.A . He  completed his B.A. from Garden College , Rawalpindi and  did his M.A.( Persian) from Punjab University,Lahore.

In 1989, Azad was awarded 'Doctor of Literature ' by the University of Kashmir for his contribution to Urdu literature. In 1994, the University of Jammu awarded him 'Doctor of Letters' degree .

Azad wrote, Nazms, Gazals, Rubais and Naats.He wrote poems for children. He wrote criticism, essays, biographies ,travelogues and most importantly 15 scholarly books on Allama Iqbal including Urdu translation of Javednama ( written in Persian) . Azad was also a journalist and academician .

 It was Jagan Nath Azad who wrote the first National Anthem of Pakistan as Jinnah had desired that a Hindu should write it. The anthem “Aey sar zameen e pak, zarey  teray hain aaj sitaron se taabnaak" was later replaced by the present ,the one  written by Hafeez Jalandhari. Azad wrote 70  books . Azad was elected vice-president of Anjuman Taraqqi-i-Urdu (Hind)( under the Ministry of Human Resource Development ) in 1989 and President in 1993, remaining in this office till his demise.  Beena Sarwar writes in 'The Hindu ' ( September 22, 2009 ) as under :-

“Pakistan had a national anthem -- commissioned and approved in 1947 by no less a person than the country’s founder and first Governor General, Mohammad Ali Jinnah, long before Hafeez Jalandhri’s Persianised lyrics were adopted as the anthem in the 1950s -- ordinary citizens may be forgiven for their ignorance. The lyricist of the first national anthem was the poet Jagannath Azad, son of the renowned poet Tilok Chand Mahroom . Born in Isa Khel (Mianwali), Jagannath Azad was working in Lahore when Mr. Jinnah commissioned him for this task just three days before Independence. He complied, Jinnah approved the lyrics, and the anthem went on air on Radio Pakistan Karachi (then the capital of Pakistan) the day Pakistan was born. Some Pakistanis still remember hearing it. Those who came after 1948 have no memory of it.”

In September 1947 ,he moved permanently  to India leaving his dear Lahore, reluctantly and painfully when he found that in his locality, he was the lone Hindu resident and his friends also advised him against staying anymore in view of total changed circumstances . He took up his residence near Pul Bangash .Sahir Ludhianavi also lived with his mother in this locality. The friendship that had started in Lahore gort further cemented. Sahir remained close to Azad till his death.Others who were in Azad's close circle included Ali Sardar Jafri, Majrooh Sultanpuri , Ghulam Rabbani Tabaan, Gopal Mittal, Zikr Ur Rehman, Kanwar Mohinder Singh Bedi, Prem Nath Dar ,Josh Malihabadi, Arsh Malsiyani, Mohinder Nath, Naresh Kumar Shad, Prakash Pandit, Sajjad Zaheer, Krishen Chander, Syed Hamid, Malik Ram, Rifat Sarosh , Jamuna Dass Akhtar, Dr Khaleeq Anjum,Dina Nath Mast, Salim Jafri, KL Narang Saqi ,Hakim Abdul Hamid ,Qateel Shifai , Ahmed Nadeem Kasmi and many more .
Starting with a 40 rupees per month job in  Milap newspaper at Lahore , Azad retired from a very senior position from  Press Information Bureau . In between he also worked with Tribune newspaper, Adabi Duniya magazine  and Jai Hind Newspaper. He also served in the  Publication Division  as assistant editor under Josh Malihabadi who edited Aajkal, Bisaat e Aalam and Nau-Nihal.He also served Jammu University as  HOD Urdu and as professor emeritus  .

Prof. Azad has been a widely travelled man. He has also penned his impressions in some beautiful  travelogues . The travelogues relating to his visit to Russia and the US are full of beautiful and interesting anecdotes . Anything and everything one wanted to know about Jagan Nath Azad has been revealed by him in his interview to  M A Wani  from Department of Urdu ,M.A.M.College ,Jammu. And Mukta Lall  has taken pains to reproduce the interview verbatim in this book under review ( page 174 to 211). She  has taken pains to list awards and honours that Azad received during his life and after his death.These awards have been listed at  pages 212 to 238 of this book. Azad has received more than eight awards from reputed international institutions for his work on Allama Iqbal including the one given to him by president of  Pakistan. Mukta Lall has also listed ‘Thesis and Dissertations’ on works of Jagan Nath Azad by various scholars the world  over.

The book also mentions some interesting anecdotes  in the literary journey of  Jagan Nath Azad. These anecdotes reveal some beautiful moments and good time spent by Azad in the company of his friends like Sahir, Ludhianavi, Sardar Jafri,Ahsan Bin Danish,Bismil Saidi, Mohammad Tufail, Sagar Nizami  , Malik Ram , Akhtar Shirani and Jan Nissar Akhtar. I quote three as under:-

After the partition of the country, when Azad went to Pakistan for the first time, he was invited by Mohammad Tufail, editor 'Nukoosh ' for a dinner where only vegetables were served as dishes . After the dinner was over ,  Azad told his friend:-
" If only vegetables were to be served, then what need was there for creation of Pakistan."

Once Sajjad  Zaheer  and Jagan Nath Azad had come to Jan Nissar Akhtar's house .Akhtar's son, Dr Salman Akhtar joined them and Azad told him:-
"Dear Salman, sometimes I feel pain in my joints "
At this, Dr Salman said :-
" Uncle ,  I am a Psychiatrist . I treat mental sickness"
Pat came Azad'reply:-
" Very good. Please treat your father then ."

Once Ali  Sardar Jafri and Azad were  going to Lahore in a PIA flight. Sardar wanted to have a drink . He asked the steward  for it who  refused to serve the  liquor to  Sardar for being a Muslim. Thereafter, Sardar asked that the  drink be served to Azad. The steward recognized Azad and refused to serve him the drink even though he was a Hindu.  When Sardar Jafri objected to it , the steward replied that  he respected Jagan Nath Azad  for his work on Allama Iqbal  and  also considered  him as a   man from Pakistan. After arriving at Hotel Intercontinental , Lahore, Faiz Ahmed Faiz took them straight to the bar.

The book also includes some poems Gazals,Rubai's and Shers  of Azad.Poems like 15th August 1947,Bharat ke Musalmaan,Babri Masjid, Kolkata 1946, Nai Mehfil and the Anthem for Pakistan have also been included  included.

Set in 380 pages, the book has some historic photographs of Azad with Nehru, Indira Gandhi, Dr Shanker Dayal Sharma, Sheikh Abdullah, Qateel Shifai,Javed Iqbal ( son of Allama ) ,Ahmed Nadeem Kasmi, Giani Zail Singh, Sufi Ghulam Mustafa Tabbasum, I K Gujral, General Zia UL Haq, Sardar Jafri, Devendra Satyarthi , Hari Chand Akhtar  and many more apart from some family photographs. The communication skills of Jagan Nath Azad are visible in his letters to his  daughter (Mukta, the author of this book under review)some of which form a part of the book. Azad died on July 24, 2004  after a brief illness.  He was 86 .On his death many newspapers in India and Pakistan wrote obituaries. The Dawn Newspaper wrote “Nazaan tha jis pe kaaba woh  kaafir nahin raha ” or “The unbeliever for whom even  Kaaba also felt proud  is no more now” . Azad had already said so when he was alive . I quote a couplet of Azad :-

“ Kya  khabar kya baat oss ke kufr mein  posheeda thi,
Eik Kaafir kyon haram vaalon ko Yaad Aaya bahut”

Azad was a voracious reader of English literature. In his train and air travel, he would always carry a book . Doctor Zhivago and Resurrection written by Boris Pasternak and Tolstoy respectively  were read by him while he was  travelling by train.

 Like Ali  Sardar Jafri ,  through his writings and poetry , Azad also worked for building bridges of peace and goodwill   in the subcontinent . The partition of the country had  saddened him. Till his death he made every effort within his reach  for  this elusive peace .

I recommend the book to every person to know Jagan Nath Azad , the person, poet, writer  and  the great human being . At my own level , I have experienced his humanism when Azad visited our bank in 1990 with an elderly  Kashmiri Pandit and made a fervent request to provide a locker to the desperate sufferer from Kashmir who, carrying the family's jewellery in his pocket,   had visited every bank in the city for a locker. Later I came to know that Azad never knew the man personally. Only empathy, compassion and human feelings were the key factors for his coming to the bank and seeking a locker for the person. He had heard the person narrating his woes per chance.

After 1947, he kept visiting Lahore for Mushairas , literary meetings and seminars. Let me conclude with lines from a poem that he read in the country of his birth when he visited it  for first time after 1947.

“Teri  mehfil se jo armaan o hasrat le ke niklaa thaa
Voh hasarat le ke aaya huun voh armaan le ke aayaa huun
Tumhaare vaaste  aey doston me aur kyaa laata
Wattan ki subah aur shaam e gareebaan le ke aaya huun..
Mein apne ghar mein aaya huun magar andaaz to dekho
Ke apnay aap ko maanind mehmaan le ke aaya huun”

( Avtar Mota )

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