Friday, November 29, 2013




Photo Autar Mota November 2013.

It is a practice that has come to stay with Kashmiri Pandits since many centuries and its roots can be traced to VEDIC civilization..
A red thread known as Naaribandh in kashmiri is tied to the wrist in   a religious ceremony . The thread is tied on the right hand by males and unmarried females while married females tie it on their left hand .

Beyond this I need to quote Saint and Shaiva Scholar Pandit Rugh Nath Kukoloo ( 1911 -1997 ) affectionately known as Baigaash . Always sending positive vibrations , his smiling demeanor would attract one and all irrespective of caste ,creed , colour or religion. Baaigash was a scholar and accomplished astrologer . See What has to say about Naaribandh..
“ Naaribandh or Mauli is tied to invoke the blessings . Since Mantra recitation has a direct effect on this thread , it is also useful to ward off evil from a person who wears it. It also protects the person who wears it from ailment ,opponents and threats . The Naribandh has some knots ( Generally 3 or 5 or 7  )on its length that hold the spiritual powers. Never come out from a Puja , a Homa or a Religious ceremony without a Naaribandh . You carry no positive vibrations for your mind . And above all it should be tied by the priest who is attending the Puja or Homa .Never yourself and never by a person who did not sit in the puja or Homa .

A Naaribandh also carries the blessings of Trideva and Tridevis ( Brahma , Vishnu , Mahesha , Lakshmi , Sarswati and Durga ). Brahma creates new positive thoughts in our mind , Vishnu protects these thoughts for us and Shiva destroys all bad and negative thoughts . Sarsawati gives us knowledge , lakshmi brings wealth while Durga gives us Power and energy . So Keep a Naaribandh tied to your hand till you tie a new one in some other Religious Ceremony. It should not be thrown in Dustbins or on Roads . Best way to dispose off a used Naaribandh is to consign it to Vedic elements like fire or water . I would suggest fire only.” 

(Autar Mota 29.11.2013 )

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Thursday, November 28, 2013



Jammu 28.11.2013.
( L to R Nida Nawaz Hindi poet from Kashmir, Dr Ved Kumari Ghai and Autar Mota )

Dr Ved Kumari Ghai ( Born 1932 )
( MA Sanskrit , MA Ancient Indian History And Literature , Doctorate in Sanskrit , Diploma in German and Danish languages )

Kashmiris in particular remain indebted to her for her scholarly translation of Neelmat Purana ( 2 Volumes ) to English and Kashmiri poet Rajanka Ratankantha’s SURYASHATKAM ( 100 Shlokas in praise of Sun God ) to English from a Sharda manuscript . 

Dr Ghai has also authored books like Kashmir Darpan, Narendra-Darpan and Kashmir ka Sanskrit Sahitya ko Yogdaan ( Kashmir’s contribution to Sanskrit literature) . Together with her scholarly husband Prof . Ram Pratap , she has co authored books like Urmika ( a collection of Sanskrit poems ) , Mere Geet Tumhaaray hain ( Hindi ), Rajendra-karnpur,Bhallat-shatak and Sanskrit Sahitya Aur Nibhandh . Her scholarly book “Studies in Phonetics and phonology “ has been widely appreciated and well received. .

Dr Ghai has also authored innumerable scholarly papers on ancient Indian history and culture and helped at least two  generations of writers with her knowledge and erudition. Dr.Ghai has been abroad several times in connection with academic assignments.

She is former Head, PG Sanskrit Department, University of Jammu and has bag full of awards and honours including the prestigious Padma Bhushan. She is presently chairperson of Gandhi Sewa Sadan, Vasudev Katumbkam Welfare Society, Member of Shri Amarnath Shrine Board and associated with a number of literary and social organizations.

And In addition to teaching and research work at Jammu University, till her retirement in December, 1991, Dr Ghai has also taught Panini’s grammar and Sanskrit literature at the Institute of Indian Studies, Copenhagen University, Denmark (1966-67 and 1978-80). She has also been associated with Stockhom University . She lives at Trikuta Nagar in Jammu city .

It was a pleasure to listen to her today in a seminar and interact with her in presence of young poets / writers which included Prof. Aruna sharma , Shri Agnishekhar, Sheikh Mohd Kalyan , Nida Nawaz ,Maharaj Krishen Santoshi and Punjabi writer Dr Baljit Raina . I salute  her clarity of thought and erudite conceptual frame work . A very polite lady who is firm and clear in her elocution.

“Yes I have been able to locate some more manuscripts out of which two have been written by of Rajanka Ratankantha the Kashmiri Sanskrit Poet . I look forward to translate them. With these translations , another aspect of Kashmir’s contribution to Indian thought and the richness of its past culture shall emerge to readers . ”

A moment of great privilege for me  to interact with this living legend..May she  live long and continue  doing her great work......

( Avtar Mota  )

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Wednesday, November 27, 2013





He belonged to a family that had creativity in its DNA. His one brother , Bushen. Kaul is a well known artist .Hriday Kaul Bharti, the pioneer of modern Kashmiri short story , was his another brother .

Umesh Kaul ( Born 1934 ) is a forgotten short story writer from Kashmir . Born in Sopore , Kashmir , Umesh used to write in Hindi and Urdu before he switched over to Kashmiri . His first Kashmiri story 'Ad Kathh' ( Half story ) was published in the Kashmiri magzine KONG POSH in 1955. His stories like' Duwoat' and' Dil 'are a proof of his dexterity in understanding human relations. He belonged to a select group of modern writers who were influenced by European short story writers . This group comprised of Akhtar Mohi ud din , Hriday Kaul Bharti, Ali Mohammad Lone , Bansi Nirdosh , Amin Kamil , Deepak Kaul , Avtar Krishen Rahbar , Taj Begum Renzoo , Rattan Lal Shant , Hari Krishen Kaul and many more . Later many writers including Faruq Masudi also joined this group. Some writers from this group also wrote plays on contemporary and socially relevant themes.


Sometimes you find him present in his stories and quite often his language turns romantic . To some readers his stories appear like flower beds of emotions. However his two stories namely 'Ada Kathh' ( Half story ) and 'Akh Devta Ta Akh Raakheuss' ( One god and one Devil ) bring forth all the essential characteristics of his style and language . In a way both are his representative stories. He must have written more than two dozen short stories. His one short story ,' Bhagya-harta ' is included in the compilation of contemporary short stories published by Bhartiya Gyanpeeth .


Umesh Kaul also wrote script for some Kashmiri language documentaries for I&B Ministry .

A post graduate in Hindi, he produced a popular science fiction programme for Radio Kashmir ,Srinagar.He was a good painter who had his initial training from Som Nath Butt. He also wrote script for the popular radio programme VAADI KI AWAAZ. He had joined AIR as a script writer.

For some time during early sixties of the last century, he also worked as sub editor of the newspaper' Kashmir Post' published from Srinagar .


He had another skill that many people don't know. He had a technical precision that could set right anything and everything even expensive electronic gadgets.. He had the patience to repair any camera . Padamshri Pran Kishore Kaul revealed to me how he had set right a very complicated and expensive camera with which his team had been shooting a documentary .

A frail looking man who had enormous talent and skill in many fields of life. He was a photographer, script writer, short story writer , painter , guide, teacher, entertaining host and above all a great human being.

 About Umesh Kaul, Padamashri Pran Kishore Kaul says this :-

 “What shall I say about Umesh Ji? To sum up he was a genius. He was a dear friend much more than a colleague. In fact the entire family was talented. I was lucky to work with his other two brothers too. Bharti Ji was my regular playwright in the Radio. Bhushan Ji ,a well known painter designed costumes and props for my stage production of operas,  Himala Ke Chashme, Piya Baaj Pyala and Tipi Sultan beautifully after researching the history of the connected periods . And the photographs of the operas are testimony to his innovations. I would like to mention here another personal experience of Umesh Ji's technical acumen. Singer Sewing Company had introduced a domestic knitting machine. My wife Shanta Ji was  very fond of knitting machine. She  purchased one from the very first lot. After a few months it went out of order.  While rehearsing for Vadi Ki Awaz,  Shanta Ji told Umesh Ji about it. He in his particular humorous style told her ‘rogan josha thaviv tayar ba dimas nazar’ or ‘ Keep Rogan Josh cooked , I shall come and see it’ .To cut the story short ,he came to our house and had a look at the machine. He asked for a screwdriver and a plate.  Taking the screwdriver, he started opening the machine. Imagine he had never seen this knitting machine  earlier. He kept the sketchy manual aside and almost dismantled the machine keeping the nuts and bolts in the plate. He  cleaned them and refixed them. Lo and  behold , the machine started working fine. We were amazed. Yes we had a hearty meal after that. Technical acumen , he  had in his genes. Their father Pandit Sarwanand Ji Kaul was the best watch maker in the entire state.”


Adds  Prof. Nighat Hafiz from Kashmir :-
“Physically a tiny structure mentally as alert as ever, a gem of a person as I knew him. Docile, soft spoken and decent to talk to, he would make a difference while walking through corridors of Radio Kashmir's Srinagar station...People would start calling him from every corner and ask for help. My salutes for all the respect he showered on me while working with him.”

Prof. Shiben Raina   Adds:-
“ Umesh Ji  must have written more than two dozen stories in Kashmiri .From 1962 to 1964 , he was  the sub-editor of a news paper Kashmir Post   published from Srinagar and later joined AIR Srinagar as senior script writer .I have included one of his short stories "Bhagya-harta" in a compilation of contemporary short stories  that I did for Bhartiya Gyanpeeth in 1973.. ”

  Bansi Raina, a close friend of Umesh Kaul  says this :-

“He was a photographer and had some  expensive cameras and Gadgets . He would also paint in his spare time . Umesh was no ordinary human being. He along with Bansi Nirdosh would churn out one script of VADI  KI   AWAAZ  every alternate day. He could be friends with any generation. He was the elder brother of painter Bhushen  Kaul and  Hriday Kaul Bharti. A gem and a great man and friend and guide. He was frail but mentally very strong.He would sometimes take me to his  home and  say to  Bhabi..(his mother..).Pochh chhu mai onmut ( I have brought a guest with me ) and would ensure I was properly fed. Array yeh to Yaadon ki Baraat hai  .”

Nida Nawaz well known Hindi poet from Kashmir adds..

"He was also a leading broadcaster and as a script writer of "Science Magazine" I worked underhHis guidance for thirteen years.He was indeed a great guide and the best writer."

Shri Rajesh Kaul ( Ex. Senior officer from Door Darshan ) adds this  ..

"Umesh Kaul Ji had done post graduation  in Hindi but would write a science talk for Radio Kashmir. He was blessed with many capabilities apart from being a good writer. He was a very good cinematographer , an animator, a film processor and an editor. He shot introductory montage for a science fiction. Dr. Zero for DD Srinagar in late 70's, processed at his house and edited the same under magnifying glass using a magnifying glass ,a scissor and a cello tape. The film being mute the music was added later on  at the at TV Centre Srinagar. The series was produced by Sh. C.L.Hakhoo and had late Sh. Som Nath Sadhu and Pushkar Bhan Sahib in the lead roles. Everyone used to call him Umesh Ji out of love and respect. The only sister among five brothers Deep Prabhaker was the first lady from the state to attain masters degree in Dramatics from M S University Baroda (Vadodara). Umesh Ji  was a refined and superfine human being who was respected by all and had a varied class of friends. His famous short story .”Baazar Hoon Te Insaan “ perhaps remained unpublished. He was a chain smoker and would often forget his lit cigarette in his two fingers during writing a script or rectifying a gadget. He would visit coffee house once in a day to meet his intellectual friends .. He was popular among ladies because of his varied knowledge . He could talk on any subject. He had a  keen eye for cinema..He was the  cinematographer of a documentary titled , ‘ In The Backwaters of Dal’ where he used  his key driven Bolex camera. The documentary was made  for  Mohammad Shafi Khan,  a famous Kashmiri filmmaker settled in Mumbai.There’s so much to say about him. His subtle sense of humour was terrific. "
About Umesh Kaul, Shahnawaz Taing has this to say :-

“Umesh Ji headed the ‘Current  Feature’ unit of Radio Kashmir , Srinagar .His other companions were , .P.L. Kher and .Ghulam Nabi Ratanpuri. I too was on the penal of writers. Wadi Ki  Aawaz,Tabsarah and Aaj Ki Baat was the responsibility of this section.He guided me well.He knew the art of editing the scripts making them crisp and to the point.He would always guide and encourage me. May his soul rest in peace.”

Fayaz Shaharyar, former DG AIR says this :-

 “We have been colleagues for years, the bond stayed even after his retirement and my posting to Jammu where he used to come regularly, chat and write for radio mainly on the current affairs. A visibly iconoclast intellectual, amazingly creative and even ingenious . A moribund watch, a broken transistor would get their lives back with just one touch by him. A meaningful commentator on sub-continental imbroglio, a linguist, a writer, a loner (in some good sense), a conversationalist who was heard with rapt attention had a mind that scintillated with brilliance till the last day. Blessed be his soul.”

.I conclude this mini post with a Doha or poet Firaq Gorakhpuri ..

 "Nirdhan kavi ke paas kya

kuchh peeda kuchh preet,

Kuchh andekhay sapne hain

dard bharay kuchh geet"

( Avtar Mota 27.11.2013 )

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Tuesday, November 26, 2013

A KASHMIRI PANDIT BRIDEGROOM....VEEGIS MAAEJ NATCHIYO MAHARAAZO ,YENDERAAZO SHARIKA ANNIZIENN ( Your mother shall dance merrily on the Rangoli , Looking like lord Indra ! Bring a girl Like Sharika to this house )


Photo Autar Mota (25.11.2013.)

The bridegroom is about to leave with the Barat to the Bride’s house for the auspicious LAGAN . He was made to stand over the colourfully drawn VYOOG ( Rangloi ) and garlanded by his relatives. Every lady tried to kiss his forehead and bless him. A relative blew the Conch Shell. His cousin held a decorated umbrella over him. A child dressed as *(1)Poat Maharaaza held his hand while his grandmother put a small piece of Barfi in his mouth .

And as the BARAT left for the Bride’s house , men rushed towards the waiting Cars to occupy seats while women walked behind the bridegroom clapping , dancing and singing….

(1)        Chhakki Sheerin Daanaai Daanai .( Shower him with   sugar candies piece after piece) .
(2)        Ye Chhu Mossuum Mossum Krishna Bhagwaan ( He is as innocent as Lord Krishna Himself )
(3)        Naabad Aaprovnuss Sharikaaye.. Shiv ji hai Ghar Draav Umaaye .
.( Goddess Sharika has come to put sweet candies in his mouth , Behold ! Lord shiva leaving for  Uma’s / Parvati ‘s  abode  .)
(4)        Veegis Maaej Natchiyo Mahaaraazo… Yenderaazo sharika Anizein...( Your mother shall dance merrily on the Rangoli ,   Looking like lord Indra ! Bring a girl Like Sharika to this house )

And when the Car carrying the bridegroom started to leave , His mother rushed close and threw handfuls of rupee coins over the vehicle . The ladies kept dancing around the VYOOG and wishing the boy and his bride happiness and prosperity even after the bridegroom and the BARAT had left.
AND these simple and unknown kashmiri women (with their VANVUN, TEIKTAAL, TARANGA ,MAAENZI DULL, VYOOG, ATTAHUUR , DEIJHUUR , NARIBANDH, KROOL and HIKAT ) kept RIVER  VITASTA ( Jhelum ) flowing in my mind .

(Autar  Mota 26.11.2013 )


The Poat Maharaza practice was started by Kashmiri Pandits during the dark Days of Afghan rule in Kashmir.It was introduced under great anxiety as bridegrooms with Dastaars on their heads were seized by Pathans and tortured. So another young boy dressed like a Bridegroom and called as Pot Maharaza would also join the Barat . And should any untoward happen to the real bridegroom , the POT MAHARAZA was a natural substitute .


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TO THIS PHOTO I AM ADDING MY KASHMIRI POEM Raavan Tyol ( lament of loss ). The poem has also been rendered to simple English for those readers  who do not understand kashmiri...

( Ravan Tyol )

Kaaem Taam Vuchh Aekki Dohh Suyee  Bulbul
Baagus Peith Beiyee Vuff  laayaan
Kattie taam Aav Ta Guvv Bonein kunn
Baalun Kunn Tchol  Khoat Aakaashus
Doorein Munz Gayee Sheitchh Ammi Kathhie Hinz
Jaafur Voathh Heirrun Nanavoar
Hee Thharie Dietch Kraaekh  “ Hey Ghar Anietoan ”
Gule-Akhtaab Draas   Neithhanon Tchhaandieni   
Kaawuv kaer Fraestun pyath Chik-chikh
Baaga Tchariev dyuot  Voann Aakaashus
Patta Kattie sa Kattie Neab lobukh tuss
Tchhandaan Roodhiess Lanjjie Hiendh Posh
Kaanh Mossum Chhallihay Yimm Daag
Deivaa Poshun Mashihay “ Kyah Goam? ”
Vaav Karaan Gatta Geur Lanjjien Az
Vaai  Pattarun Mosha -Mut  Tcharri-Popp.
Baagus Burr Gayee Yella Akki Doah Itta
Tche ta Vuchh Baaguk Raavun Tyol…

( Autar Mota 26.11.2013 )

( Lament of loss )

And then one day ,
Some one saw that Bulbul again,
Coming from some end,
It flew  over  the garden towards the Chinar Trees ,
Hurried   towards the mountains
And soared up   the sky .
This news reached   the flower beds ,
The Marigold   rushed down barefoot   ,
The Jasmine  laden branch cried
“ Bring him to his Dwelling ”
The sunflower ran without clothes  to look for  him,
The crows  on the Poplar tree cried in agony ,
The garden sparrows  flew  high to look for  him in the sky ,
 And Never did the Garden know his whereabouts later,
The flower laden branches kept waiting for him,
Look! No season could wash these bruises
And make flowers forget what befell them .
What if the wind   kisses and embraces branches  today,
 The  leaves  do not remember   their cheerful clapping anymore .
 The garden doors are open once more  ,
Drop in someday ,

Let you also see the lament of loss in the Garden.

( Autar Mota 26.11.2013 )

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Thursday, November 21, 2013




PHOTO Autar Mota


Dodh Traavithh Aab yuss Mandhey
Suyee samsaarus Kandhey Zaav..
Par Ta Paan Yuss Huvuyee Vandhey
Suyee Habaa *(1)Sendhey Teertath Draav…….

(The person who forgets Milk ( Luxury ) and churns water
is really born in this world.
And the One who does not distinguish between himself and others
is on a pilgrimage to the Teertha at Sindh .)


Other day I asked a friend (who shares his knowledge of Camus and Kafka with me ) about Mohan Nirash . Pat came the reply ..
“ Mohan Nirash was a singer with Radio Kashmir Srinagar . ”

 And this reply was a big surprise to me .
                                                          Mohan Nirash ( 1934-2000 ) 
Mohan Nirash ( 1934-2000 ) was a poet , Playwright , Translator and above all a gentle human being . He resided at  Drabyaar Habba kadal and later  later moved to Delhi where his family is settled at the moment . Nirash ji was employed in AIR ( Radio kashmir srinagar ) and was essentially a Hindi poet who started writing in his mother tongue ( kashmiri ) possibly around 1967. He was a master translator and did some excellent translations from kashmiri to Hindi as also from  English ,Hindi and Sanskrit to kashmiri . He wrote kashmiri Dramas ( Ratti Daaen Posh or Bleeding Flowers ) as well. Nirash ji also translated Arthur Miller's DEATH OF A SALES MAN  to kashmiri  apart from translating  Galsworthy's JUSTICE .

And one day in October 2000, while going to meet Santoor Maestro Pandit Bhajan Sopory at his Lodhi Road residence , Mohan Nirash ji met with a Fatal accident . The voice turned silent but the poems that he composed created   an indelible imprint on  kashmiri literature.
I wanted to know about his recorded kashmiri songs and my friend Shri . Dalip Langoo ( Music composer  ) added more to my knowledge and informed me as under

“ Since he was a Hindi poet I am not aware about his Koshur Qalaam but we were in Delhi working on a project, he penned down some beautiful poems for a TV Serial .I have recorded one of his kashmiri poems and put that on my sound cloud. I do not think any of his poems in Kashmiri are at all aired on Radio Kashmir .. His Children:1. Upinder ji recently retired from Akashwani as Depuy Station Director New Delhi; 2. Late Pardyot Raina is no as he too met with a serious road accident a few years ago; 3. Neeraj ji is teacher (Art Teacher) in a Delhi's reputed school and dear Ashutosh Raina is in a private job. Aahee!”.

Here is a portion from this lovely kashmiri song with excellent music composed by Dalip Langoo. This song was actually written for the TV serial Afsanaay e Kashmir produced by Rajesh Amrohi . This song can be heard at ....


Rueess Katchie Lokchaar Vun Kuun Trovum Yaavun Rovum Shaharitch Braaentch
Pholnaai Pamposh Kammie Putchnovum Kyaa Gudrovum Taqdeeran …….
Ronnie Daamanuss Shronnie Shronnie rovum Kyaa Gudrovum Taqdeeran
Vuzmallie seenuss Duz Duz Thhovum Kyaa Gudrovum Taqdeeran …….

( Mohan Nirash )

Like a Gazelle , I left my childhood in the forest ,
And lost my youth in this City’s temptations .
Who threw this lotus to dust before its bloom? 
And see what regret my fate brought to me ?
I lost the “Chhum” “Chhum” of my dancing apparel ,
What regret my fate brought to me ?
The lightning kept kindling many a fires within my chest
What regret my fate brought to me ?

In my private collection, I have a copy of Noornama published in kashmiri by Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Art culture and Languages dedicated to ALAMDAAR e KASHMIR ( Nund Ryosh ).. This special number has also published some Shrukhs of Nirash ji . I quote ..

Ruum Gayee sheeshus Taapus gayee gatta
Akaalie samayuss Voathh Andhakaar
Paanchuv Praanuv Kraaekh Laayie Yikavatta
Baar Khodayaa Paap Nivaar …..

( Mohan Nirash )

The sun splintered and the day light turned to shadows
Untimely darkness engulfed everything .
All the **(2) five elements cried in one voice
“ O Lord ! Unburden us of these sins .”

  Antaa-Karnan Andherie Peyii Traaetta
 Deh zun valieni Me Aav samsaar .
***(3)Maya Zaalus Aundh katinuss Ratta
Baar Khodaaya  Paap Nivaar ….

( Mohan Nirash )

 As if  Struck by  lightning , The inner self lies battered .
And this  World  appears to influence  this external self  .
Where shall i draw a line to this *MAYA  MESH   ?
O Lord ! Unburden us of our sins .

 Syed Zeeshan Fazil  informs me about a program that Nirash Ji used to produce for Radio kashmir Srinagar ..
 “Pragaash is one of his remarkable productions of Radio kashmir. He was a well read person always dedicated to his work and never believed in any groupism at his work place or outside.”

 And Pragaash was the most popular and informative  Program of Radio Kashmir Srinagar that was aired for about  26 Years .
 Poet Shantiveer Kaul ( son of Stalwart kashmiri Poet Dina Nath Naadim ) adds...

“No gentler soul than Nirashji, no unassuming one either - and as, if not more, erudite, well informed and analytically keen as any. I have memories of this soul that will last me this lifetime as a reference point of what is good and gentle.”

Hindi Poet Agni shekhar adds.....

 “The greatest of great kashmiri translator, who translated nearly 400 radio plays , Gandhi Katha,Ramayana ,Vaital Pachchisi and other important  literary works into Kashmiri . Besides,Mohan Nirash was a prominent hindi poet and broadcaster,efficient Interviewer.He wrote gazals in Kashmiri too. His innovative programme like 'PRAGAASH' was immensely popular across the length and breadth of Kashmir Valley.Mohan Nirash was a household name in Kashmir.And died in exile ”
Adds Bansi Raina..
 “ Mohan Nirash lived at Dalhasanyar. Habbakadal area.A noble unassuming soul ..He was a very diligent  worker. Mohan Nirash who had at ready translated Galsworthy’s  JUSTICE  for the  Radio ..Rewrote it as a stage version at my request...He was fond of palmistry and we use to exchange ideas and view point on the subject. A man who deserved more than what he got. A great friend.”

Nirash ji always believed in the present while ensuring preservation of our language and past cultural heritage . I quote him
“While it is good to take steps for preservation of past heritage, we should not let the present slip out of our hands as our today's achievements are going to be tomorrow's heritage.”

So long so much……………

( Autar Mota 21.11.2013 )

*(1) SENDHEY is Sindh or the Sangam or Prayag Teertha of kashmir . It is the confluence of Vitasta and Sindh stream at Shadipora Kashmir. This place is also mentioned as Teertha in Neelamat Purana . I quote..

"The wise say that by bathing in the confluence of Sindhu and vitasta especially on the full moon day of the month of Prausthapada , one obtains the merit of the performance of Ashavmedha ."
(Neelamat Purana Canto 1384 Volume II)

* *(2)Five elements are Prithvi ( Earth ), Akaash ( space or sky ). ,Vaayu ( Air ), Jal ( water ) and Agni ( Fire ). These five elements, water, Air, fire, space and earth are together known as “Panchtatva”..

***(3)Maya Zaal  ( Maya Jaal ) is  philosophical concept  related  to Maya or illusion. Many Mystic poets of Kashmir have used the word Maya Zaal  for this world and its material temptations.. In  Budhism , Maya  plays a prominent philosophical role . In Budhism , what appears to the naked eye in this world   is  Maya  or  a Magician’s Illusion which  is far  away from the reality . According to Shaivite Philosophy of Adi Shankara, Māyā is invisible or beyond sense-perception. But this universe which is its effect, is visible or perceived by the senses.

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