Friday, September 23, 2016


                                        (River Indus Near Leh  Photo Wikipedia )
                                     ( Jhelum in Srinagar city Photo Autar Mota )
                                        (  River Chenab Near Doda In J&K )

                                             (  River Chenab Near Doda In J&K )


This Treaty was negotiated by International Bank of Reconstruction and Development ( Now World Bank ) Between India and Pakistan in 1960 . The primary aim of this Treaty was to regulate the use of water of 6 rivers ( in Punjab and Jammu And Kashmir ) between India and Pakistan. By virtue of this treaty , Water usage of Satluj , Beas and Ravi was  fully assigned to India while Indus , Jhelum and Chenab went to Pakistan with certain riders for India. The treaty was signed on 19 September 1960 in Karachi by Prime Minister Nehru and President Ayub Khan.

Prior to this treaty , we had the Punjab Canals water distribution Agreement for sharing water between East and West Punjab falling in two countries .This agreement was signed in 1948.This agreement covered a water sharing pattern between India and Pakistan and strictly
Applied to three Punjab rivers namely Satluj ,Ravi and Beas.

The treaty of 1960 also created arrangements for financing  Pakistan for  building Tarbela  Dam  on the Indus and Mangla  Dam  on the Jhelum and eight link canals which were needed to store and transport water from Indus, Chenab and Jhelum rivers to the areas which had hitherto been irrigated from the waters of Satluj, Bea's and Ravi rivers now 'assigned’ fully to India.
India was required to contribute an amount of Pounds Sterling 62,060,000 towards the financing of this new replacement work. The financing arrangements were a decisive factor in the success of the Indo Pak negotiations prior to signing of the treaty.

Pakistan would not have agreed to the Treaty in the absence of funds for the construction of the dams and link canals for the storage and transportation of waters of the western rivers to compensate for the loss of the Satluj ,Beas and Ravi rivers.

The treaty also stipulates that India shall not build any reservoir based Dam on rivers assigned to Pakistan so that optimal supply of water was available to that country . India was required to Build Projects only on the run of these river .

When India Built Baglihar Hydroelectric project , Pakistan raised  Hue and Cry . So was a loud noise made when Kishenganga Hydro electric Project was built on Jhelum river. 

A Neutral Expert  and Arbitrator  was appointed to hear these disputes . The  findings essentially said that new knowledge of sediment management technology meant that India had to be allowed to install low gates if not a reservoir . The Arbitrator upheld India’s inalienable right to power generation on all the three rivers with some riders  so as to allow optimum water supply to Pakistan .

Run-of-the-river hydroelectric stations are those with small or no reservoir capacity, so that only the water coming from upstream is available for generation at that moment, and any oversupply is allowed to pass unused.
Indus water treaty is the basic cause of power crisis in our state. We can not build a reservoir based Power project on Indus , Chenab and Jhelum when water of these rivers is J&K’s main natural resource  to be used for development and prosperity of the state.  Our power projects in the state are built on "Run of the River" Technology . We have smaller "h" factor in "mgh" calculation of Potential energy. And then this run of the river brings more silt to Turbines and the Generation Plant that gradually reduces the generation capacity.
Hydraulic turbine components operating in silt laden river water  are subject to abrasive and erosive wear Erosion .This   is one of the biggest problems in the Himalayan region.  And water of Chenab , Jhelum and Indus is silt laden. This wear  due to silt laden water not only reduces the efficiency and the life of the turbine but also causes problems in operation and maintenance . This ultimately leads to   diminished power generation apart from economic losses.

 ( Autar Mota )

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