Tuesday, October 17, 2017




Poetry is closely linked with music and sound. To fully understand poetry One needs to have some knowledge of Music and sound effects as well. It equally applies to Musicians who also need to understand feelings and the mood of the words that they are singing . In a way Poetry and Music are closely interconnected . If Poetry has inherent Music , music is poetry presented through sound effects .

In Modern kashmiri poetry , Dina Nath Naadim has created enormous sound effects in his poems .Using these patterns , he was consciously and continuously freeing kashmiri poetry from its centuries old Bondage of Meter , Rhyme and generic monotony and at the same time adding grace , Beauty and Artistic excitement to it .

Through word sounds , he made sustained attempts to infuse musical effects in kashmiri poetry . These sound effects have imparted Inertia, Vitality , Flow, Movement and quite often a strange internal Rhyme to his poetry .As a skilled craftsman , he has made good use of what is known as consonance, Dissonance , Alliteration and Onomatopoeia in Poetry .

This illustrious accomplishment of sound effects by Naadim warrants a close scrutiny and for this achievement , Naadim has possibly none as his rival in Modern kashmiri poetry . Alas ! There has been no serious attempt to study the syntactical patterns that Nadim devised in kashmiri Poetry . These patterns enhanced the unmatched Diction in his Poetic work..

In his early poems “Nov Son’th or New spring “, written in 1946 , he uses sound of Birds and moving wind to create poetic resonance . Words like “Koo Koo “ of Koel and “ Hoo Hoo “ of the spring season’s light wind have been used in the opening lines of the poem to create Poetic exhilaration and reverberation .Again in his poem "Quami Yakjehti" or " National Integration "  Naadim  uses bird sounds.

I quote:

" jaana-vaaruv  mutcharav Ton'th .Piyoo  Piyoo ya Tiriv Tiriv,  Goo too too ya chiriv chiriv , Aalam Aalam sonthaai son' th"
" The birds open their beaks to sing  Piyoo Piyoo or Tiriv Tiriv.They sing Goo goo goo or Chiriv Chiriv. Spring season comes to stay all over the world"

In his Poem” Dal Beath Baeth” or “Along the Banks of Dal Lake” written in 1961 he again uses words like “ shee shee “ to describe speeding breeze . Again he used words “ Tschee Tschee “ to describe tossing waves arising from of waters of Dal Lake.

In his Poem Tamie doh ( That Day ) written in 1971. Naadim uses the ticking sound of a wall clock as a forceful sound effect in his opening line .Then in his poem Chaer Katha ( Foolish talk ) , He uses the galloping of a horse as sound effect in the poem ( Tadaakh Ta Padaakh Tadaakh Ta Padaakh ), The breaking sound of wooden doors and windows too has been conveyed in this poem written in ( Daarie Ta Burr Pheatt Braen Braen Braen Braen ) .

The sound of water laden clouds has been superbly described by him in his poem "Paan Tchaadar" ( Water laden cloud ) " I quote ,

"Gurr Gurr Garaar Gurr Garar Garar , Jhar Jhar Jharaar Jharaar Jharar , Tar Tar Taraar Tar Taraar Tarar Sar Sar Saraar Sar Saraar Sarar "..

In his poem Maut ( Death ) , Naadim brings in melancholic sound effects . i quote ,

" Tak tak Taabun tar Tam tar tar -- Shar Shaka Shaapun Shar Shum Shar Shar "
In his poem Qaumi Yakjahti ( national Integration ) , Naadim uses sound of birds to create sound effects in his verse. I quote
" Piyoo Piyoo Ya Tiriv Tiriv,Goo Goo Ya Chiriv Chiriv "

In His poem Zalaer zaal (Cob web ), Naadim uses sound words to convey his disenchantment . I quote ,

"Oh Oh Oh Oh, Oh Oh Oh Oh , Oh Oh Soruyii gardi Gubaara .".


In his Poem “Shuhul Kull “ Nadim uses the magic of word sound exactly the way Russian Poet Mayakovsky was famous for . Repetitive usage of a single word to carry forward a sentiment forcefully. “Barag Barag” , “ Laenjein Laenjein “ Vathar Vathar “. Again the contrast technique of Mayakovasky is clearly visible in this poem. Naadim uses contrasts together to put impact . “ Prein Ta Chheit ( Shining bright and dull )“, “Zug Ta Shaam Rang ( White and black ) “ “ Yetiek Faraeing ( Residents and outsiders ) “. Nadim also favours usage of similes that form a hallmark of Mayakovsky’s poetry. Mayakovasky was known for pushing comparisons and similes to breaking point in his poems. And it is now quite clear that Naadim had read enough of Mayakovasky . Like Mayakovasky , Some poems of Naadim are meant to be read aloud for the sound words that create a rhythm of a drum beat or a march cadence. This style is used in poetry to create Auditory images . And Like Mayakovasky, Naadim has also excelled in this task . The influence of Mayakovasky’s poems “Our March” and “Call To Account” is visible on Naadim’s poem a “Naara e Shabaab and “Naara e Inquilab’ . To substantiate my point , i quote some lines from Naadim's poem "Jangbaaz Khabardaar" or " Beware  O war monger " ..

" Thahar Laeni bronh ma pakh, fasaad fitana keanna Hyaath, Ya bum ta gun machine Hyaath _Hiroshima ya chhuyi na  yath karakh tche Lurpaar vuchh, Grezaan chhu Aabshaar vuchh ,nishaat shaalmaar vuchh,  wattan yi myon chhuyi bedaar navbahaar vaar vuchh, iraada vustvaar vuchh, Tulav tyongal ta naar vuchh."

" Stop, Don't cross your limits. Don't come here to fight  , create  troubles and for settling scores. Don't come with your bombs, guns and weaponry. This is not Hiroshima that you can raise to dust.Look, our water falls are roaring. our nishat and shalimaar gardens  are awake. Awake lies this beloved land of mine .Look how beautiful is our new spring season over here and our rock like determination. Stop else we can also arise with flames and fire .."

For Naadim , Many a critics may consider it as a result of turbulent happenings in subcontinent as the poems were written around 1947. But I am focusing on the overall impact of the throw of word sounds . These word sounds are certainly a Mayakovasky influence on Naadim.


( Autar Mota )

This write up appeared on my Facebook Page  sometime back. Noted scholar  Dr Shashi Shekhar Toshakhani in his comments to my face book post wrote as under  ,

" Autar Mota' Ji's post is a highly appreciative attempt to stimulate discussion on the need for a reappraisal of Dina Nath Naadim's poetry at both ideological and structural levels.  Despite having passed away nearly three decades back, Naadim continues to be the most important modern Kashmiri poet. The comparison with Mayakovsky is important as well as relevant as both the poets display remarkable similarities so far as characteristic peculiarities of their poetry are concerned. They also have much in common in their approach to the questions of the function of poetry and the role of a poet. I too had made a reference to Mayakovsky's influence on Naadim in my  Book “Kashmiri Sahitya ka Itihas “ , published way back in 1985. What enhances the value of Autar Mota Ji's write-up is the details he has given, including the translations of some of Mayakovsky's representative poems and his photographs. Both Myakovsky and Dina Nath Naadim were passionately committed to the ideology of Marxism and sought to free their poetry from the hold of centuries-old conventions, stereotypes, and stylizations inherited from traditional verse to give expression to their new thoughts. Regarding poetry and political action as inclusive they produced what can be described as a heady mix of poetry and politics. It was this that made their poetic readings draw tumultuous ovation from the crowds who thronged to listen to them. Nadim, like Mayakovsky, verbalized his thoughts through a new language and a new idiom. His innovatory experimentation was not merely of a technical nature but indicative of a new way of looking at the contemporary human situation. His choice of free verse as a medium of expression was a basic requirement for answering the challenges of the shift in sensibility which he himself had brought about in Kashmiri poetry. This proved to be a turning point in the history of Kashmiri poetry. In Hindi, Nirala was the first to write in free verse as far back as 1923, to be followed by Sumitra Nandan Pant . In fact, this was an important characteristic of avant-garde poetry throughout the world in the early decades of the twentieth century. In Kashmiri, poetry had always been directed more at the listener than at the reader. Naadim's use of blank verse created a bridge that connected the two. Autar Mota Ji has also pointed to the musical effects created by Naadim in his poems by employing alliteration, consonance, internal rhyme and other poetic devices. In fact, these devices, particularly internal rhyme, have throughout been the main characteristics of Kashmiri lyrical poetry. What distinguishes Naadim is that he brought into play the inner music and acoustic values of Kashmiri words, which combined with his imaginative use of images taken from the day-to-day life of the common folk, created a tremendous effect on the minds of the people. While doing so, Naadim stretched the strengths and potentialities of the Kashmiri language to their farthest limits. His strength as a poet lay in the "unexpected dynamics of words and rhythms", to use the words of the noted Malayalam poet K. Sachidanandan.”

 CHINAR SHADE by Autarmota is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 2.5 India License.
Based on a work at http:\\autarmota.blogspot.com\.

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