Tuesday, January 21, 2014

RASHID HAFIZ 'S POPULAR SUFIANA SONG ...YA TULI KHANJAR MAAREY NATAA SAANIE SHABA ROZEY ( IN ENGLISH TRANSLATION )


                                                                            


Rashid Hafiz is a popular Kashmiri sufiana and Chhakri  singer . His most popular song  "YA  TULI  KHANJAR MAAREY  " goes as under ..


"Ya Tuli Khanjar Maarey"
( By Kashmiri Poet Abdul Ahad nazim )

Yim Zaar vanahuss bar_dar
kar sana su yaar bozay.
Ya tuli khanjar maarey
nataa saanie shabaa rozay..

(I shall narrate at his door step
If only he pays a heed to my tale of woes.
Either he picks up a dagger and kills me,
Or let him come and stay for a  night)


Bulbul chhu behiit ba gul
Mushtaq gomut chhu bilkul
Nai rozi gul nai bulbul
Akh ashq Kathhaa rozey……..

(In this close sitting with the Gul ( Flower ),
The Bulbul is chock-full of hope now .
Alas ! Neither the Gul nor the Bulbul shall there be lastingly ,
But yes the tale of their love shall last for ever .)


Maashooq Kyah Goyee keenaai
Aatash Mein Borthhum Seenai…
Aashiq chhu Kammi Taam Zeenai
Maarun Ma  Ravaa Rozey……………….

(O Beloved ! What Rancor made you
to fill my bosom with this fiery pain ?
When a lover rides high horse ,
Is it Proper to kill him like this ?.)


Muss deutnum kalwaalan
Chhivraavnus Aik Pyaalun
Chhum Doori Doori Zaalan
Kar Sanaa Dawaa sozey

(My Saqi offered me the drink
And just one cup put me off my feet ..
Slipping away and away , he now makes me smolder,
Tell me when shall he send the medication ..)

Kyaa Goas Malaal, Roothum
Sar e Aadnuk Yaar Kroothum
Kathh Dard e na`iye Beuthum
Kar sana Paigaam Soazey………………..

(What dejection led him to get annoyed with me ?
Why My foremost love lies cold now ?
While he picked up this flute of pain ,
I look forward for his communication to arrive)

Maashooq Kaerthhum sitam
Naazim Chhu Praraan ittam’
Chhus Tashnaa Deedar Dittam
Pagaah na yi Dum Rozey …


(“O Beloved ! How many torments more ?
This Naazim has been waiting , Do come now .
Parched am I ,Show me your face now.
May be I do not survive tomorrow for you ….)


( Abdul Ahad Nazim)

.

(Autar Mota 22.01.2014 )


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KEHRI SINGH MADHUKAR(1930-2000) .. STALWART MODERN DOGRI POET


                                                                         

 KEHRI SINGH MADHUKAR ( 1930-2000 ) STALWART MODERN DOGRI POET .

Kehri Singh Madhukar (1930-2000 )

I came to know this Grand Dogri poet through my friend Madan Singh Slathia . This friend once read Madhukar’s poem “Ambar Khadotaa Chhadaa Chupp-Chaap Dikhadaa or Silent Stood the sky nearby watching everything ”. The poem bore  Marxist thoughts   but the humanism and imagery in this powerful poem belonged to   poverty laden rural  India. Any person anywhere would have immediately identified with the moving thoughts of the poem. I too was touched . It also reminded me of Albert Camus”s line “ The Benign Indifference of the Universe ” .

After that , I read everything about Madhukar that I could lay my hands on. His songs , Gazals and beautiful poems. I found his work Lyrical and provoking . His poems do not settle in your mind alone. They keep hovering around your heart again and again . Surely he was a revolutionary and visionary but always full of compassion. I can also say that he was all in one .

One can feel the inherent music and flow of Words in his poetry . And once you translate him from Dogri , he comes up as eloquent as Naazim Hikmet of Turkey. My study also makes me to believe that he was a Naadim of Dogri renaissance . What poet Dina Nath Naadim did for kashmiri , Madhukar brought the same Modernism to Dogri.

His admirers included Prof. Jay lal Kaul , Bakshi Ghulam Mohd, Ghulam Mohd Sadiq ,Com Dhanwantri, Ram Piara Saraf, Pt Trilochan Dutta, Girdhari Lal Dogra and Pandit Shiv kumar Sharma ( Santoor Maestro ).


                            Madhukar belonged to a reputed family of Dogra Rajputs. His father Thakur Kripal Singh was a Major in the State Forces.During a visit to Village Gurah Slathian ( presently Samba district ) , I also happened to see the ancestral house of this poet near Devak river . In 1961, Madhukar joined J&K Academy of Art, Culture and Languages, as Editor Sheeraza Dogri and stayed there till 1974. In this short span of thirteen years, he did an incredible job for the collection of folk literature and the development of modern Dogri literature.

For some time , He also worked as announcer with radio Kashmir jammu . He was treated summarily by the official Patrons of Art And Literature who just handed him a Sahitya Akadmi Award in 1977 for his book "Main Mele Ra Janu" when he deserved much more for changing the face of the Dogri poetry . I am informed that Madhukar wrote so many songs for the Radio station jammu which probably have been lost . Four collections of poetry are to his credit entitled Namian Minjrain, Dola Kunn Thapea, Main Mele Ra Jannu and Padam Gokhru. He wanted to publish one more collection of poetry, compiled under the title "Parabhat Panchi Bolea" but he died before the book could see the light of the day. Neither did his family show any interest to publish his last poetic collection. Yes “Dola Kunn Thapea ”has been translated in Hindi by Padma Sachdev and published by Sahitya Akademi New Delhi. It is placed in classic literature series of Indian literature.


A master contribution in the field of translation from Madhukar appeared in 1961 when he translated 101 Bangla poems of Nobel Laureate Rabindra Nath Tagore
In the shape of a Book titled “Ekottarhati ”. Apart from this He has written radio plays, operas as also undertaken important translation works into English of some well known books in Indian languages.


Liquor came in his way frequently. It disturbed his creative and professional life. It finally proved fatal for him and he breathed his last on 24th August 2000.

Now something about his poems .

 Madhukar's most popular poem “Kohlu ” is based on exploitation of labour by the rich and the privileged .It is an attack on the system . Like the Ox of the oil expeller, the poor man keeps labouring hard bearing everything even starvation for some other person’s comfort . Madhukar uses “ Kohlu ” is a symbol to present the condition of the common man in the corrupt and selfish society .This common man keeps the Kohlu of labour running totally oblivious of Chaitra and Sawaan or the changing seasons

I quote some lines from his poems ..


“Chur-Mur Chur- Mur Kohlu chaldaa
Baladh Chaley Ek Chaal .
Aey Janamey Da Raahi Bacheraa
Keh Mahiney Keh Saal..
Jajari Jajari Tora Turdaa
Gal Thankey Gangroal.
Undaa Khichadaa Bakhar Fisdaa
Taan Thhondaa Fi Teil.
Jorein Jorein Chhantaa Bajdaa
Pindey Laasaan Paun
Akhiin Khopey Soajh Gwaachi
Keh Chaitra Keh Soan”

And again in this poem he adds .

“Hazar kroh eh painda karda.
Phi bi uhai thhaan
Teli baichey teil bazaarey
Nein dandai da naan.”
("The Ox  covers a thousand kilometres but remains tied to the same spot. still The Teli ( Oil seller ) sells the oil in the market and earns while none makes mention of the ox.)
And

Pralay di Gataa Ganondhi Rehi
Par Lau suraj di mukki Nahin....

Mere Kaaran Desay Andher
Falaiya Hirakh Pyaar
Chalay Bapaari Pardesein Gi
Kardey Banaj Bapaar.............

Another example of his beautiful verse:

“Jo lehar kanara tappi ja.
O lehar kanarai hoi jandi
Mitti di goda sei jandi
Mitti de rangai rangoi jandi “
(The wave that crosses the bank goes beyond the boundary and sleeps in the lap of the earth and ultimately becomes one with it.)

Before his death he kept informing his friends to keep meeting and visiting. He would often say that this life and the breaths that one inhales could not be relied upon . Hope of someone around could be more trusting and satisfying . His simple but lyrical poem conveys these sentiments :-

"Iney sahain da ke parbhasa jindey
Asain laggi de raini hai asha jindey
Aoundhe jande raina,
mildhey gildey raina"

Only Madhukar could write like that .

 ( Autar Mota 22.01.2014 )
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Sunday, January 19, 2014

TWO STALWARTS FROM KASHMIR, ARTIST TRILOK KAUL AND POET DINA NATH NAADIM


                                                                       
                     Well known Artist Trilok kaul with Poet Dina Nath Naadim..

Assi Koar Faasela Seizaruss Pazarus
Roazuvv Naali- Naal
Raatitch Gatta Kaasithh Praaethh Subahitch
Pravii Soan Isteqbaal…………….

( Dina Nath Naadim )

After we decided to ally with Simplicity and Truth ,
Every beam of Morning’s first light ,
After tearing Apart Night’s darkness ,
Waits to welcome us
( Autar Mota 19.01.2014) 
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Thursday, January 9, 2014

HOW MANY SUNSETS MORE ?


                                                                            

How Many sunsets More ?
Photo Autar Mota 


 To this photo , I add mini Gazal in  kashmiri  composed today ..

Aaechh Daras Akh Vaada Beyi Akh Bewafa
Beyi Siri Loseov Az Guv Beyi Pagaah

Shaand Paaeith Gayee Kaarwaan Raatus Pakaan
Dard Shaharuss Rooz Raatus Trap-Trapaa..
Kathh Karuvv Adha Vaaen Khassuv Naarein Nattein
Zchhopp Karuvv Seenus Andher Duzvienn Gaaejja.

( Autar Mota )

Eyes in wait ,A Promise and a loveless Individual,
Once again the sunset and Today moved to Tomorrow 

Caravans moved past the bed pillow all along the night ,
This city of pain had night long activity …..
Speak it out and you are instantly in the Gossip Bazaar,

Be Silent and carry a hearth inside the Bosom……
( Autar Mota 09.01.2014 )

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Wednesday, January 8, 2014

SOME PROMINENT YELLOW SANDSTONE HAVELIS ( MANSIONS ) OF JAISALMER, RAJASTHAN.


                                                                   

    
HAVELIS  OF  JAISALMER

The old city  has several Havelis built in artistic style .All these Havelis have extensive and ornate yellow  stone carvings .Some prominent HAVELIS  worth mentioning are ..

PATWA HAVLEIS

The Bafna  Oswal  (Jain ) Havelis known as Patwa Havelis are  the most  ostentatious  HAVELIS to visit. This  cluster of five havelis was   commissioned in 1805  by Ghuman Chand , a wealthy Trader from Bafna Oswal ( Jain ) community . This family traded in Gold and Silver threads , Opium , Jewels , Ghee etc. The  family had their business branches in Afghanistan , china , Sindh and Calcutta and Chennai  with hundreds of camels ,horses and elephants to carry their goods across various trade routes .

                                                                        






The overhanging  balconies  of these Havelis are carved intricately.   The havelis  have Decorated gateways with  arches ,elegant rooms and  Cellars  . Some rooms in these Havelis  have Intricate Mirror work . The  outer walls  of the 5  Patwa Havelis have  carvings of flowers , leaves , Birds ( peacocks ), gods and goddesses in perfect geometrical proportion.

NATHMAL KI HAVELI
Other Haveli worth mentioning is the NATH MAL  KI  HAVELI  ( Mehta Nath Mal was  a Dewan of the Jaisalmer state ) The haveli was built in 1885 AD.   Haveli as an elephant statue in its courtyard .This three storey Haveli has also been built with yellow sandstone having intricate carvings on its walls , windows and  Jharokhas .
                                                                       
                                                                         
 SALAM SINGH KI HAVELI

Another Haveli known as MOTI MAHAL or SALAM SINGH KI HAVELI  is named after  Mehta  Salam Singh , A Dewan of Jaialmer  . He was  cruel and sadistic in his dealings . He had seven wives and the again wanted to marry  a Palliwal girl  which the Palliwals refused .  In revenge ,Salam Singh started   mistreating  and  taxed them for all their activities . Palliwals  had settled near Jaisalmer  and had  built excellent rain  Water storage ponds for their agricultural activities. They were also into the trading business    Salam Singh’s .  acts forced Palliwal Brahmins  to vacate all the 84 villages granted to them by the rulers of Jaisalmer . They  moved out of the desert in one go secretly leaving behind their houses , Animals and other property  . Maharwal Gaj singh a Bhatti ruler got him finally killed .
 Built with yellow sandstone ,this haveli has carved Balconies . The Haveli had 9 floors but after the death of Salam Singh , Maharwal Gajsingh demolished 2 floors .

                                                            

Another Haveli near Mandir Palace  known  NACHANA HAVELI  is currently being used as a Restaurant.
                                                                         
             
( Autar Mota 06.01.2014)

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Monday, January 6, 2014

GADISAR :A BEAUTIFUL AND WELL MAINTAINED LAKE IN THE SUN DRIED DESERT CITY OF JAISALMER


                                                                               

                                                          
           ( Tilon ki Pol or the Gateway to the Gadisar Lake .. Photo Autar Mota )
GADISAR ,A BEAUTIFUL  LAKE IN THE DESERT  TOWN OF JAISALMER..
                                                                           

The present population of this desert city is something around 58 thousand souls .Water is a scarce commodity . It is practically a sun dried city with  no river or canal .One can see  Sand dunes  in Sam, Khuri, Ramgarh and Tanot villages near Jaisalmer .
                                                                             
Gadisar lake in Jaisalmer    (wherein rain water was harvested since ages ) was the chief water source of the city. To collect precious rain water ,this lake was first built by the rulers in 1156 AD. Later it was   reconstructed by Rawal Gadsi Singh (A Bhatti ruler ) in the year 1340 AD. There are nicely  designed temples and shrines located by the side of the   lake. Presently water from Indira Gandhi canal is also fed to this lake through pipes .  Inside  this lake ,   a big domed pavilion has also  been built.

                                                                 




Deep Dug wells and Indira Gandhi Canal supplies water to this desert city at the moment. I was informed by some elderly people in Jaisalmer   that the rulers of Jaisalmer would personally supervise the water distribution to residents of the city from the lone Gadisar lake source . 
 A gate has been erected at the entrance to the lake . The gate is elegant and majestic in its construction And architecture. Tilon ,a wealthy  prostitute  from Jaisalmer   erected a gate  to this lake in 1909 AD  which till today is known as TILON  KI  POL. It was also informed by some persons that Tilon was also  a singer and dancer patronized by Jaisalmer  Royal Darbar .

One can also see something like Shikaras on this  lake  surface  for tourists . The shikaras have popular  names like DHOLA MARU or MAARWAAR QUEEN  taken  from  Rajasthani folk  tales.
                                                                           

                                                          

( Autar Mota 06.01.2014 )



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PADHAARO MHAARAY DES ..THE COLOURFUL DRESSES , DANCES AND THE MUSIC OF DESERT PEOPLE IN JAISALMER


                                                                         
                                                                           

(Children from Manghaniyar community dancing inside the sand dunes of village SAM Near Jaisalmer..
Photo Autar Mota) 

THE COLOURFUL  DRESSES ,   DANCES  AND THE MUSIC OF  DESERT PEOOPLE  IN  JAISALMER

                                                                             
                 ( A kalbeliya Dancer with some Tourists at Sam Sand dunes  Photo Autar Mota )

The Barrenness of the Thar desert is made colourful by the people through their dress, dance and music . The kalbeliya dance performed by Kalbeliya tribe ( also known as Saperas and Jogis in Thar ) is now popular in western countries as well. Mirasis, Nats and Bhopas are also professional singing communities living in the Desert. Other dances of the desert are Ghoomar ,Ghair and Dandhiya .

                                                                       
              ( Khuda Bux and party from jaisalmer  performing in a live concert . Photo Autar Mota )




 Some important Fairs and festivals of the Desert  land of Jaisalmer are the GANGAUR ( held in the month of March/ April ) , Desert Festival ( Held in the month of January / February each year  ) and the Ramdev Fair ( held in the month of August / September  each year ).People also celebrate  Deepawali, Holi , Idd and  Dussehra  .
                                                                   

Turbans are considered a matter of pride by desert people . People of all ages wear colourful turbans on festivities and family functions . Men living in villages like to  wear Dhoti, Kurta or  Chola . They also wear earrings known as Murkians . Jooti or locally made camel skin shoes are preferred .
                                                                         

Women wear Ghagra , kanchali , choli , lehnaga and Odhini .Married women wear bangles known as Chudaa .women also wear ornaments   called  Paajeib , Teeka , Nath ,Jhumka , Bichhiya , Baajoobandh , Hathhpol ,Nimboli , Kanthi , Hansuli , Anguthee and  other ornaments .They also use Henna for dying their palms and feet .
                                                           

Kamayacha , Ravanhatta ,Sarangi , Algocha , Conch , Rawaz , Shehnaai ,Surnaai , Murli , Nar , Morchang , Karthal , Dolki , Dhol , Pungi and Duffli are some popular instruments of Desert Music .Singing is a profession of Langa and Manghaniyar community of Muslims ( Hindus Originally who converted to Islam in 17th century. Some Manghaniyars are Hindus as well ) living in the desert.
                                                                 

The Puppeteers or kathputli dance performers are another gr and attraction of the desert .The dandling Puppets are made to dance accompanied by singing of Ballads . Musical instruments are also used by the performers . Puppeteers were patronized by Kings and wealthy traders .

                            Ragas used in Desert folk songs of Rajasthan are Maand, Bilawal, Kafi, Desh, Khamaj and Peelu. Some Ragas are in pure form while others are in combinations. Maand is the greatest contribution of Rajasthani music to the classical music of India .In fact the popular Rajasthani folk song KESARIYA BALAM has been sung in MAAND style only.Some famous Mand singers from Rajasthan are : Allah Jilai Bai ,Mangi Bai and Gavari Bai and all of them have been awarded Sangeet Natak Akademi Awards for their contribution in enriching Indian classical Music .
                                                               

                                          ( Allah Jilai Bai , the Most Popular Maand singer 1902-1992 )
The desert songs are mostly about Water, Holi Festival, Peacocks , Flowers , Rajput Valor, Romance , Love tales of Dhola- Maru or Moomal -Mahendra . The water songs sung by women are centered around the village well. This singing style is called 'Panihari'.
'Gorbund' is the famous folk song of the desert which represents the practice of preparing an ornamental string for a camel. The popular Gorband song is “ Mhaaro Nakhraalo Gorband.. Lad Jhooma Jhooma .. ”

And then the most popular song of the Desert

*Nimboodaa Nimboodaa Nimboodaa --
Array kacha kacha chhotha chhotha
Nimboodaa layii do ……..


The song NIMBOODA has been sung for ages by LANGA and MANGHANIYAR Folk singers of the Desert . And our cinema spread this lovely desert folk song to the entire length and breadth of the country ………….


( Autar Mota 05.01.2014 ) 

 *Nimbooda means small unripe lemon. In the song a young woman from the lesser hot plains ( who is married in a desert family ) requests her husband to buy her some lemons from nearby city . The lemons could be of a smaller size even but she is desperate to have them. . This shall enable her to quench her thirst in Thaar desert  . The lemons shall also help to protect her against evil and envious eyes of people. I was informed by many people from the desert that Pregnant women in Thaar are always asked to sip lemon juice. Hence a lemon is linked to the folk culture and tradition of the desert life.



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A VISIT TO JAISALMER FORT IN THAAR DESERT


                                                                     
               
 ( A view of  Sonar Killa or Golden Fort of Jaisalmer  from Gadisar lake   . Photo Autar Mota  )


 GOLDEN   FORT AND  THE DESERT  CITY OF JAISALMER   
                                                                      

                                   (A Night view of the  Jaisalmer fort . Photo Autar Mota )
                                                                            

                                                ( A view of the City from Jaisalmer Fort )
Old Jaisalmer City lies inside the Sonar Killa or the Golden Fort built by Bhatti Rajput kings atop the Trikuta hill in this part of the Thar Desert. It is one amongst a few living forts in the world. You have houses , shops, Hotels , Lodges and Temples inside the fort ; All bustling and throbbing with activity . Open drains , Stray animals , winding narrow and dirty lanes lead you to these Hotels and Lodges . During winter months ,these lodges and hotels are packed to capacity with tourists mostly from Japan , Europe and America. . Yes you may also notice a Rajasthani Youngman with earrings Conversing in German or Japanese with the tourists. These semi-literate young boys , who have poor knowledge of History and culture of the area , call themselves “ Tour Guides”. They keep bothering you outside the Fort Palace, Fort Gate and the Jain Temples seeking engagement . In case you have not studied the history and culture of the area , You need to look for   some senior , approved and  well informed guide from some recognized Tour Operator for a satisfying visit to the Fort   .
                                                                               

When you move inside the Fort area , you find old Houses , open drains , Narrow lanes , Tourists , Guides , Handicraft shops , Tea and Bhelpuri stalls ,Speeding motor bicycles /Auto Rickshaws , Roof Top cafes , Yellow sand stone balconies with Ornate carvings , Travel Agents , Middle men , Brokers and Beggars singing and playing on Ektaara .
                                                                            

Marriage invitations are painted on outer walls of the houses . Guests are invited by writing Marriage Programs decoratively on outer wall . Something unique to this fort city .
                                                                             
                                                                                
                                                                                    

If you shop , you need to Bargain . The Prices quoted appear on a very higher side .Accommodation booked through net may turn out a Ramshackle residential house in some dark and narrow alley inside the Fort. Quite often what is advertised through attractive phrases on net by lodge or guest house owners does not exist on ground. Good Hotels and Restaurants are also available outside the Fort area .
                                                                         




The fort has four wooden gates ( Pols ) having thick iron nails .The Palace is built atop a gate known as HAVA POL . The fort has 99 Bastions for security purposes. Other gates to the fort are known as Suraj Pol, Ganesh Pol and Bhoot Pol.Observed from a distance , this fort looks Golden yellow at Dawn but changes its colour to something close to Honey at sunset time. The yellow sandstone available in the region has been extensively used in the construction of this fort.
                                                                                 


Most of the palaces inside the fort have beautiful carvings on yellow Sand stone   depicting  Hindu Gods , women , camels ,  Peacocks ,elephants , flowers and Leaves .The view from the balconies, Jharokhas  and windows of the Palaces inside the fort  is majestic  . The interior portion of all the Palaces is   cool and airy.  The palaces worth visiting are SARVOTAM VILAS, RANG MAHAL, MOTI  MAHAL and SHEESH  MAHAL .
                                                                                





                                                                           

Another Palace built lately in 1830 AD lies outside the fort area . This palace is known as Mandir Palace and has two elegant  yellow sand stone carved  buildings called BADAL VILAS  and JAWAHAR VILAS. The descendents of  the rulers live in this palace which has been partly leased to a  Prestigious Hotel  .  
                                                                 





The Trikuta hill upon which the Jaisalmer fort is built is about 250 Feet from the ground. The lower part of the hill around the fort has a solid stone  Boundary wall. The fort has been constructed perfectly for defence against enemy attacks.

THE BHATTIS OF THE THAR DESERT

The Bhattis were a feared lot who thrived by levying Taxes on Carvans of Merchandise moving on this ancient Trade route . This route from Thar desert was a preferred route for movement of goods from Delhi to sindh and thence to Iran and Arbia and vice versa .Bhattis , who claim to be Chandervanshi Yadav Rajputs , were Feudal chiefs who amassed wealth on account of the Trade Taxes and occasional looting of Carvans .It was in 1156 AD that Rao Jaisal , A Bhatti Chief founded the Jaisalmer city atop Trikuta hill and consolidated his wealth and position in the area. He ordered that only Brahmins , Rajputs and Traders would inhabit the fortified city while other communities had to live outside the fort .So the inner area of the old city is mostly inhabited by Brahmins , Rajputs and a small segment from Trading community only. At the moment , Roughly about 4500 People live inside the Fold fortified city .

The Bhattis were Hindus but patronized Jainism as well. Eight Jain temples with Extensive stone Carvings were also built by them inside the fort .These Jain Temples have exquisite yellow sand stone carvings depicting flowers ,  Dancing women , gods horses and elephants .  These Jain Temples are known as  Parshavnath  , Sambhavnath ,Shantinath , Sheetal Nath ,Ashthapath, Chander Prabhu Swami ,RishabhDev and Mahaveer Swami Temples . A Laxmi Nath temple dedicated to Laxmi and Vishnu located inside the fort is also worth seeing .
                                                                              





                                                                               

The Bhattis lived happily except when they looted the Carvan of Mohd Ghori. The sultan was annoyed at this act and his army attacked the Fort . The Rajputs lost and the Royal ladies Performed first *Jauhar inside the fort.. Jaisalmer remained disturbed for about 200 Years thereafter . Alla Ud Din Khilji’s forces also attacked the fort in 1308 AD and the Royal ladies performed another Jauhar after the Rajput forces lost to invading Forces of Delhi’s sultan. Mohd Tughlak’s forces attacked the fort in 1326 AD and laid a siege for 8 years . The royal ladies performed another Jauhar when Rajputs were defeated .Another Jauhar was performed in 1485 AD when Rao Lunkaran died fighting Ali khan’s forces . This Jauhar of Royal ladies is remembered to this day in some folk songs of the desert.
Bhattis also kept moving out and scattered themselves in many directions .Some went to Punjab , others settled in Sindh where they came to be known as **Bhuttos.

The period from 16th to 18th century was a golden age for this desert kingdom. The Rajputs made peace with Akbar .

 ( Autar Mota 4.01.2014. ) 

PS
* Jauhar was a widespread practice amongst the Rajputs of Rajasthan. Jauhars of Jaisalmer are well documented in the history of Rajputs .When Rajput kings lost the battle or were killed in the battle field , their ladies and the queens used to jump in Burning fire to save their honour and avoid captivity by the enemy. In a Jauhar many royal women, girls and children killed themselves together by jumping in burning fires. After ladies performed Jauhar , All Royal men would wear battle dresses and Kesari ( saffron coloured )turbans ,hold glittering swords in their hands , order opening of the gates of the Fort and attain Martyrdom in fight with Powerful enemy troops waiting in siege outside the fort gate. Jauhar is not to be confused with sati. When any wife burnt herself along with her husband after his death , It was called sati..

**. Late Benazir Bhutto would also mention her  Bhatti Rajput Lineage . Benazir's mother was syrian but her father was from the Bhutto clan of Rajputs originating from  Larkana in Pakistan . Most of Sindh's Rajputs are Muslims, except certain clans found in Tharparkar such  Sodhas and Dohat Rathores..


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